Leea guineensis

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Leea guineensis

Description

Shrub, sometimes with a creeping rootstock, or ± herbaceous branches, or tree 1-5(-10) m; Leaves (1-)2- or 3(-4)-pinnate, leaflets numerous. Inflorescences (3-) 10-25 (-40) cm long, compact to lax, less frequently condensed, rusty pubescent, less frequently glabrous or hairy, rarely woolly; Flowers 5-merous, red to reddish orange, staminal tube red to citrous white. Ovary (4-) 6 (-8)-celled, style 1-2¼ mm. Fruit 5-15 mm Ø, red;

Distribution

Tropical Africa; Madagascar, Bourbon, Mauritius; Asia: India (Madras to Assam), Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Andaman Is., southwards becoming very rare; in Malesia: Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (apparently absent from Borneo), Philippines (common), N. Celebes (rare); further in Taiwan and Micronesia (Palau). .

Notes

In the present circumscription the species shows a wide range of variability, both geographically and ecologically. It is undoubtedly a complex species composed of overlapping entities which cannot be satisfactorily delimited from each other, these entities sometimes having different ecological preferences. Previous workers, particularly in the Philippines have created many small segregate species, which can no longer be maintained as with increased material available all degrees of intermediates are found to exist. Most of these taxa were separated only by minor vegetative differences. The conclusion that there is but one variable species in Asia and Malesia independently concurs with that reached by GAGNEPAIN (1910) in his essay on the classification of the Asiatic species of Leea and that of BANERJEE & BABU (1971) on the conspecificity of L. aurantiaca and L. acuminata. Comparison of the African and Asiatic material of ‘L. guineensi’ and ‘L. manillensis sensu lat’ showed that no clear cut differences could be found in herbarium material other than vague suggestions from the field notes that the colour of the staminodial tube might be different in living material; morphological characters of the leaves and flowers completely overlap.
Within the Asiatic perimeters of the variability there are clearly two ecological forms, one of shaded forest occurring in Malaya, Sumatra and Java, the other of secondary vegetation occurring in mainland Asia and in the Philippines. Within the latter area a vast range of forms is encountered and here the taxon appears to replace L. indica as a member of secondary vegetation.
Several morphological trends are apparent but none is clearly demarcated from the parent stock. Of these the entity ‘L. manillensis’ commonly occurs from Taiwan to the Philippines. It is characterized by small leaf dimensions and usually by the presence of hairy domatia. However, all degrees of intermediates are to be found between this entity and ‘L. negrosense” with leaflets which are larger and somewhat coriaceous, or glabrous or sparsely pubescent. The most distinctive entity has woolly hairy stems and setaceous to hispid hairs on the upper leaf surface, this may be a semi-stable form within the Philippines, but again intermediates exist with the parent population. Previously this entity was given specific rank as ‘L. cumingii'. There is a parallel form from the Solomon Islands in the L. indica complex. The Indian material shows a less wide range of variation, but in the area Thailand to Vietnam a further morphological leaf form occurs which may well be an expression of an edge of range effect. The interrelationships of these different leaf forms can only be further resolved by ecological and population studies.

Citation

ROLFE - in J. Bot. 1885: 211
WALP., Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 94
ex KURZ - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1873: 65
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 846
BRANDIS, Ind. Trees. 1906: 179
CRAIB - in Aberd. Univ. Stud. 1912: 43
GAGNEP. - in Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1912: 941
VIDAL, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 93
GAMBLE & FISCH. - in Fl. Pres. Madras. 1918: 239
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 13
RIDSDALE - in Blumea. 1974: f. 4/2-5, with full synonymy.
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 383
KURZ, Rep. Veg. And. Isl. 1870: 34
VIDAL, Phan. Cuming. 1885: 104
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 383
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 321
MIQ. - in En. Philip. 1923: 12
MERR., Philip. Bur. For. Bull. 1903: 36
BACKER, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 256
WALP. - in Repert. 1845: 378
WALP., Sp. Blanc. 1918: 247
KING - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1896: 415
LAUT., Fl. Micronesia. 1933: 208
BRANDIS, Ind. Trees. 1906: 179
STEUD. - in Norn. Bot., ed. 2. 1840: 21
BACKER & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 94
COWAN & COWAN, Trees N. Beng. 1929: 40
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 383
ex KURZ - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1873: 66
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 383
WALL. - in Fl. Burma. 1877: 278
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 13
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 851
LIU, Illustr. Nat. Introd. Lign. Pl. Taiwan. 1962: 851
CLARKE - in J. Bot. 1881: 163
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 855
WALL., Fl. E. Himal., 2nd Rep. 1971: 78
MIQ. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: 612
MERR. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1906: Suppl. 89
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 13
WALL. - in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1889: 13
HOOK.f., Niger Fl. 1849: 268
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 13
HARA, Fl. E. Himal. 1966: 199
BROWN - in Min. Prod. Philip. For. 1921: 206
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386
VIDAL, Phan. Cuming. 1885: 104
WALP. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1908: Bot. 419
CLARKE, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 94
HUNDLEY & U CHIT KO KO, List Tr. Shr. Herbs & Climb. Burma. 1961: 54
JACKSON - in Ind. Kew. 1895: 48
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 387
LI, Woody Fl. Taiwan. 1963: f. 203
LAUT. - in J. Dep. Agr. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 1936: 362
HUTCH. & DALZ., Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 1937: 304
MIQ., En. Born. 1921: 369
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 12
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 316
WALP., Fl. Manila. 1912: 312
HUTCH. & DALZ. - in Fl. W. Trop. Afr. 1928: 479
C. B. ROB. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1911: Bot. 209
HAINES - in Bot. Bihar & Orissa. 1925: 207
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 387
WIGHT - in Ic. Pl. As. 1854: t. 78
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 11
BANERJEE & BABU - in Ind. For. 1971: 19
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 320
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386
KANEHIRA - in Bot. Mag. Tokyo. 1931: 295
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386, 387
C. B. ROB. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1911: Bot. 210
WALL. - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1875: 179
STEUD. - in Norn. Bot., ed. 2. 1849: 21
BOJ., Hort. Maurit. 1837: 61
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
ex CLARKE - in J. Bot. 1881: 141
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 383, 387
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 13
KANJILAL & DAS - in Fl. Assam. 1936: 304
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 317