Passiflora

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Passiflora

Description

Climbers (in Mal.). Leaves (mostly) spirally arranged, very rarely (sub)opposite, simple or (extra-Mal.) compound, entire or lobed, pinni- or palminerved; Stipules (in Mal.) minute. Inflorescences sessile or pedun-cled, 1-many -flowered, with or without a simple tendril; Flowers bisexual, 5-merous; Sepals and petals mostly free, often highly coloured; Stamens 5(-8), free filaments at first erect, later on mostly reflexed; Ovary globose to fusiform, sessile or stalked; Fruit mostly indehiscent, ± baccate, often with coriaceous exocarp, globose to (rarely) fusiform.

Distribution

Africa: absent America: present Indo-Australia: present Madagascar: Mascarene Is: New World: present west Pacific: present
About 370 spp., of which c. 350 in the New World and c. 20 spp. in Indo-Australia and the West Pacific.
The genus is absent in Africa. The species described from Madagascar (P. calcarata MAST.) and the Mascarene Is. (P. mauritiana THOUARS and P. mascarensis PRESL) pertain to early introduced species from America, the first most likely P. subpeltata ORTEGA, the latter two being P. alata DRYAND.

Taxonomy

HARMS (1925) accepted 21 sections, KILLIP (1938) 22 subgenera and many sections and series for the New World.
The indigenous Old World species all belong to sect. Decaloba in the sense of HARMS, a section also represented in America. These species do not fit, however, into the section as conceived by KILLIP for the American species.
Within sect. Decaloba three groups can be distinguished.
Group 1 is characterized by creamy or white flowers less than 5 cm ø. To this group belong all continental SE. Asian species and spp. 1-3 in this work. A. P. de CANDOLLE (1828) knew of this group only P. moluccana and P. leschtnaultii which he referred to sect. Polyanthea, reduced to a subsection of sect. Decaloba by HARMS (1925) and CUSSET (1967).
HARMS created two other new sections among the continental SE. Asian species, viz sect. Octandranthus to fit P. octandra GAGN. with 6-8 stamens and sect. Anomopathanthus for P. cochinchinensis SPRENG. with (sub)opposite leaves, both species from Indo-China. These two species are, however, very related to P. perakensis and P. moluccana.
Group II is characterized by large, pinkish, orange or red flowers 5-10 cm ø; the outer corona filamentous, the inner corona tubiform. To this group belong 4 species confined to New Guinea, Australia and the SW. Pacific. This group was formerly accommodated in a genus Disemma; HARMS reduced this to sect. Decaloba subsect. Eudecaloba.
Group III is allied to group II but differs in having blue flowers in which the outer corona is tubiform and the inner corona small and incised. This comprises only one species, P. hollrungii, from New Guinea.
Though these groups reflect affinity within the Old World species of sect. Decaloba, it appears to me that they should not be given separate taxonomic rank.

Cytology

Of some tens of American species chromosomes have been counted; this yielded the numbers 2n = 12,18 and 20, the most common number being 18. BEAL () revealed that the three native Australian species P. aurantia, P. herbertiana, and P. cinnabarina, are all 2n = 12, adding that this would point to their primitiveness.

Uses

A number of species is introduced as ornamentals or for the edible fruit with delicate flavour. Edible are e.g. P. edulis SIMS (Purple granadilla), P. laurifolia L. and P. quadrangularis L. (Marquesa, Grenadilla). Uses and vernaculars of various Passifloras are given by HEYNE, .

Notes

I am confronted with the situation that of Passiflora in Malesia there are few indigenous and many introduced species, quite a few of which have run wild, sometimes profusely so, which causes confusion to collectors and their field notes. The five commonest among these are P.foetida L., P. suberosa L., P. edulis SIMS, P. mollissima (H.B.K.) BAILEY, and P. mixta L.f.
Under these circumstances it appeared out of proportion to study critically all these introduced species at the same level as the indigenous ones.
Therefore, two keys are presented, one for the native species and one for the introduced ones. It is not possible to separate these by a single character; therefore several forks of the first key refer to the second key containing the introduced species.
As a native New Guinean species occurs far into the Pacific (P. aurantia) I have included in the key also the two other Australasian species.

Citation

LINNÉ - in Prod. 1828: 322
CUSSET - in Fl. Camb., Laos & Vietn. 1967: 106
ROEM. - in Syn. Mon. 1846: 131, 165
HARMS - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3. 1893: 86
KILLIP - in Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 1938
BACK. & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1963: 289
HALL.f. - in Med. Rijksherb. 1922: 5
LINNÉ - in Sp. Pl. 1753: 955
BENTH. & HOOK.f. - in Gen. Pl. 1867: 810
HARMS - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 21. 1925: 495
LINNÉ - in Fl. Bras. 1872: 531
LINNÉ - in Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 2. 1879: 599
GAGN. - in Fl. GÉn. I-C. 1921: 1016
BENTH. - in Fl. Austr. 1866: 311
CRAIB - in Fl Siam. En. 1931: 742
HUTCH. - in Gen. Fl. Pl. 1967: 370
F. M. BAILEY - in Queensl. Fl. 1900: 686
MAST. - in Trans. Linn. Soc. 1871: 593
Bl. - in Rumpia. 1837: 169
DC. - in Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève. 1822: 434