Pyrrosia

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Pyrrosia

Description

Epiphytic, epilithic or terrestrial, in small tufts or extensive clones.

Distribution

Africa to Pacific Islands: present Asia-Tropical:, Sumatera (Sumaterapresent) Paleotropic: present Pitcairn: present
Paleotropic, Africa to Pacific Islands (Pitcairn). Throughout Malesia. Most diverse in Sumatra.

Anatomy

Anatomy:

Taxonomy

Pyrrosia is here treated as including Drymoglossum, which has been kept separate by, e.g., Copeland (1947) and Holttum (1954). The Malesian species of Pyrrosia can be assigned to seven distinct groups (Hovenkamp 1986); the P. costata-group (P. stigmosa, P. princeps, P. splendens); the P. porosa-group (in Malesia only P. porosa); the P. lingua-group (P. abbreviata, P. christii, P. sphaerosticha); the P. albicans-group (P. kinabaluensis, P. nummularifolia, P. rasamalae, P. albicans, P. asterosora, P. distichocarpa); the P. angustata-group (P. angustata, P. samarensis, P. novo-guineae), the P. lanceolata-group (P. lanceolata, P. longifolia, P. foveolata, P. fallax), and the P. piloselloides group (P. piloselloides). Pyrrosia penangiana is an isolated species, without closely related species. This classification is based on shape and structure of the rhizome scales, structure of the indument, shape and structure of the lamina, shape and structure of the sori, and spore sculpture. Other classifications, based mainly on a single character complex (e.g., the traditional recognition of Drymoglossum based on frond dimorphy, or the elaborate classification by Shing based on details of indument) are not satisfactory.

Pyrrosia is a distinct genus. The ‘drymoglossoid’ species (those with highly dimorphic fronds and coenosori) have been separated as Drymoglossum, otherwise it has been used in the current circumscription by most 20th century authors. Uniting characters are primarily the peculiar stellate hairs, but the sclerenchyma sheath in the rhizome and absence of pinnate divisions of the fronds also contribute to the distinctness of the genus. Its closest relative is Platycerium, which shares these characters.

Citation

Farwell - in Amer. Midl. Nat. 1931: 245
Kaulf., Fl. Javae Fil. 1829: 48
Hovenkamp - in Leiden Bot. Ser. 1986
Alderw., Malayan Ferns. 1908: 678
C. Presl - in Dansk Bot. Ark. 1929: 83
Ravensberg & Hennipman - in Leiden Bot. Ser. 1986: 281
Mirb. - in Hist. Nat. Vég. 1803: 91
Hennipman et al. - in Kramer & Green, Fam. & Genera Vasc. Pl. 1. 1990: 211
C. Chr., Index Filic. 1906: xlvi, 246
Giesenh., Niphobolus. 1901
Holttum - in Revis. Fl. Malaya. 1955: 141
Desv., Fern Fl. Philipp. 1960: 475
Maxon - in Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1903: 486
Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae. 1828: 102
Backer & Posth., Varenfl. Java. 1939: 237
Copel., Gen. Fil. 1947: 194
Copel., Gen. Fil. 1947: 192
C. Chr., Index Filic. 1906: 197
Ching - in Bull. Chin. Bot. Soc. 1935: 36
Holttum - in Revis. Fl. Malaya. 1955: 149
Copel., Fern Fl. Philipp. 1960: 469