Ficus benjamina

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Ficus benjamina

Description

Tree up to 35 m tall, hemi-epiphytic or (secondarily?) terrestrial. internal hairs absent. Leaves spirally arranged to subdistichous; stipules 0.5-1.5(-2) cm long, glabrous (or minutely white puberulous), drying often pale brown to straw-coloured, sometimes darker brown (to blackish), caducous, often involute when dry. Ovary partly red to whitish.

Distribution

Arnhem Land: present Asia-Tropical:, Indiapresent; Thailand (Thailandpresent) Australasia:, Queensland (Queenslandpresent) Myanmar: present S China: present Solomon Islands: present
India, Myanmar, Thailand, S China, Indochina to Australia (Arnhem Land and Queensland), Solomon Islands; in Malesia: throughout.

Notes

1The species is rather variable, as in the dimensions of leaves and figs, and the colour of dried stipules, petioles, and fig receptacles, which is mostly pale brown (straw-coloured), but mainly in the eastern part of the species range often darker, sometimes even blackish. The fig receptacle is usually 0.4-1 cm diam. when dry, but it is sometimes up to 1.5 cm diameter. The basal bracts are mostly 0.5-2 mm long and mostly concealed, but sometimes up to 2-3 mm and then not concealed. The ostiolar bracts are not fully imbricate, but in some parts of the species range, as in the Philippines and Celebes, the ostiole is closed. Collection FRI 5837 from Peninsular Malaysia is unusual in the presence of hairs on the basal and outer ostiolar bracts. 2Two species are closely related to F. benjamina and often mixed up with material of this species: F. stricta and F. kurzii. The former is distinct in the larger basal bracts and longer stipules and the latter mainly by the slightly prominent midrib of the lamina above.

Citation

L. - in Fl. Brit. India. 1888: 508
Miq. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: 349
Koord. & Valeton - in Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java. 1906: 118
Backer & Bakh.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 24
L. - in Rumphia. 1836: t. 71
Gagnep. - in Fl. Indo-Chine. 1928: 766
Engl. - in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1886: 452
Corner, Wayside Trees. 1940: t. 207
Merr. - in Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl. 1923: 59
M.F. Barrett - in Am. Midl. Nat. 1951: 125
M.F. Barrett - in Am. Midl. Nat. 1951: 118
Rock, Orn. Trees Hawaii. 1917: t. 29
L. - in Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl. 1923: 46
Becc., For. Borneo. 1902: 583
King - in Sp. Ficus. 1887: t. 52B
L. - in Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. 2000: 262
Kunth - in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 1847: 251
Kurz - in Forest Fl. Burma. 1877: 445
Ridl. - in Fl. Malay Penins. 1924: 336
Diels - in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1935: 184
Merr. - in Philipp. J. Sci. 1906: 46
Náves & Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 1880: 200
Corner - in Gard. Bull. Singapore. 1965: 21
Corner - in Gard. Bull. Singapore. 1965: 21
Sata - in Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 1944: 196
Merr. - in J. Arnold Arbor. 1950: 276
L. - in Rev. Handbook Fl. Ceyl. 1977: t. 15
Lam. - in Encycl. 1788: 493
Miq. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1867: 288
Merr., Fl. Manila. 1912: 46
Sata - in Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 1944: 197
Náves & Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 1880: 199
Kurz - in Forest Fl. Burma. 1877: 446
Willd. - in Sp. Pl. 1806: 1145
Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1861: 439
King - in Sp. Ficus. 1887: t. 52
L., Phan. Cuming. 1885: 145
Worth., Ceylon Trees. 1959: f. 403
Burkill, Dict. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1935: 1004
Miq., Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 251
S. Vidal, Phan. Cuming. 1885: 146
Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1861: 439
Blume, Bijdr. 1825: 456
Sata - in Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 1944: 21
K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee. 1900: 272
Corner - in Gard. Bull. Singapore. 1965: 21
K. Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Indië. 1927: 568
Miq. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1867: 267, 288
Griff. - in Notul. Pl. Asiat. 1854: 394
Kochummen - in Tree Fl. Malaya. 1978: 141
Summerh. - in J. Arnold Arbor. 1929: 146
Watt - in Dict. Econ. Prod. India. 1890: 346
Griff. - in Ic. Pl. Asiat. 1854: t. 554-II.
Benth. - in Fl. Austral. 1873: 167
Merr., Enum. Born. 1921: 221
Elmer - in Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1914: 2409
Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1851: 50
Miq. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: 346
Elmer - in Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1907: 48
Elmer - in Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1911: 1245
S. Vidal, Sin. Atl. 1883: t. 87B
Koord. - in Atlas Baumart. Java. 1916: t. 735
Dalzell & A. Gibson, Bombay Fl. 1861: 242
F.M. Bailey - in Queensl. Agr. J. 1900: t. 45, var. lehuntei F.M. Bailey (pro fol., cf. note)
Merr. - in Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl. 1923: 69
Renner - in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1907: 381
Miq. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: 346
L., Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 251
F.B. Forbes & Hemsl. - in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1899: 457
Sata - in Contr. Hort. Inst. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 1944: 195
Elmer - in Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1937: 3456