Chaetocarpus castanocarpus

Description

Trees (or shrubs) up to 45 m high, girth up to 3 m, dbh up to 60 cm; Leaves: Stipules falcate, obovate, 3-6.5 by 0.6-2.2 mm, subglabrous to subsericeous. Inflorescences densely hirsute; Flowers greenish yellow to white-yellow to yellow, slightly fragrant, sweet; Fruits 8-18 by 80-18 mm, yellow turning reddish brown, glochidiate hairs c. 3 mm long. Seeds 5.2-5.5 by 3.5-5 by 2.7-3.5 mm;

Distribution

Andamans: present Asia-Tropical:, Assam (Assampresent); Borneopresent; Cambodia (Cambodiapresent); Indiapresent; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysiapresent, Singaporepresent); Sri Lanka (Sri Lankapresent); Sumatera (Sumaterapresent); Thailand (Thailandpresent); Vietnam (Vietnampresent) Burma: present W Malesia: present
Sri Lanka, India, Assam, Andamans, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand; in W Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia (not recorded for Singapore), Sumatra, and Borneo.

Uses

In NE Malaysia (Kelantan and Trengganu) the young leaves are cooked and eaten as spinach or chopped up with rice (Corner 1940). The wood is used as a non-construction timber by the Iban, Sarawak, Borneo (Jarvie & Perumal 1994), for building purposes in Ceylon (Gamble 1902), and for sampans and columns in Indochina (Gagnepain 1926). The wood is said to be light red, moderately hard, close-grained, pores small, scanty, in short radial lines, medullary rays very fine, very numerous, narrow wavy concentric bands fairly regular and prominent (Gamble 1902, Welzen 1998).

Notes

1. Kuntze (1891) made a new combination in the genus Gaedawakka L. (). This combination is superfluous, because the description of Gaedawakka predates the starting date of 1 May 1753 (art. 13.1a, I.C.B.N. 1988).
2. One specimen with pistillate flowers (Forest Guard 3, Malaysia, BM) showed 3 filaments attached to the gynophore, all other pistillate flowers were devoid of stamens.
3. The species is fairly constant, the infraspecific variation is quite narrow. Leaves on the Malay Peninsula are usually much larger than those on Sumatra, with the Bornean specimens in between. The pilosity varies, plants in Malaysia are (early) glabrous, while on Sumatra and especially in NE Borneo the leaves can be subpilose and the branches pilose, although glabrescent. On Borneo the leaves tend to be more elliptic than ovate (Malaysia, Sumatra). The staminate flowers in the Malay Peninsula are usually much larger than those on Sumatra, also with the Bornean specimens in between.

Citation

Gagnep. - in M.H.Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5. 1926: f. 59: 12-16
Hook.f. - in Fl. Brit. India. 1887: 460
Craib - in Contr. Fl. Siam, Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 1912: 194
Corner - in Wayside Trees Malaya. 1940: 244
Thwaites - in Kew Bull. 1981: 275
Pax & K.Hoffm. - in Engl., Pflanzenr. 147. 1912: 8
Welzen - in Rheedea. 1994: f. 1, map 1
Ridl. - in Fl. Malay Penins. 1924: 310
Jarvie & Perumal - in Tropics. 1994: 159
Gamble, Man. Ind. Timb. 1902: 623
Müll.Arg. - in DC., Prodr. 15. 1866: 1122
Airy Shaw - in Kew Bull. 1975: 67
Kurz - in Forest Fl. Burma. 1877: 409
Airy Shaw - in Kew Bull. 1972: 231
Whitmore - in Tree Fl. Malaya. 1973: 76
Welzen - in Sosef et al., PROSEA 5. 1998: 156

Synonymy

Chaetocarpus castanocarpus (Roxb.) Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 275. 1861
  • Adelia castanicarpa Roxb. in Fl. Ind. 3: 848. 1832
  • Chaetocarpus castanocarpus var. genuina Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15: 1122. 1866
  • Gaedawakka castanocarpa (Roxb.) Kuntze in Revis. Gen. 2: 606. 1891
  • =Bradleia coriacea Wall., Cat.: 7872 (BM, K, NY), Malaysia, Penang. 1847
  • =Casearia coriacea Wall., Cat.: 7196 (K, L). 1847
  • =Chaetocarpus pungens Thwaites in Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6: f. 10A: 1-5. 1854
    • Holotype: Thwaites CP 2641 (K).
    • Isotype: Thwaites CP 2641 (L).
    • Type: Thwaites CP 2641 (UC).
    • Type: Thwaites CP 2641.