Polyscias cumingiana

Description

Glabrous shrub or small tree, to c. 4 m, unbranched or with few branches bearing spirally arranged leaves towards their ends. Leaves imparipinnate, up to 100 cm; Inflorescence a large terminal panicle, or with flowering branches also in the axils of the upper leaves; Petals 4-5(-6), 2½-3½ mm long. Stamens 4-5(-6), 2 mm long. Ovary turbinate, c. 2 mm long, 2-5-celled; Fruit subglobose, fleshy, 3-5 mm ø when dry.

Distribution

Cultivated throughout the region, and also apparently growing as part of the indigenous vegetation.

Uses

A common ornamental shrub, especially the cultivars with dissected foliage. Also for culinary use.

Notes

A complex of forms requiring intensive biosystematic study. I adhere to the view that the Indo-Malayan material is specifically distinct from the Polynesian Polyscias pinnata J. R. & G. Forster; cf , but some cultivated forms included here may have been derived from the Pacific rather than the Indo-Malayan species. Existing herbarium material, though voluminous, is inadequate to determine whether the complex includes species with more limited ranges.
As in 1. P. fruticosa, cultivated forms with dissected foliage occur.
See also under 4. P. Scutellaria for a discussion of the relationship with that species.
I have not seen the type of Aralia naumannii Marchal which, from the description, I assume to be a synonym.

Citation

Vidal, Phan. Cuming. 1885: 117
Bakh.f. & Ooststr. - in Back., Bekn. Fl. Java, (em. ed.), 7. 1948: fam. 159, p. 13
Miq. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1856: 766
Ochse & Bakh., Veg. D.E.I. 1931: f. 38
Merr. - in En. Philip. 1923: 236
Miq., En. Born. 1921: 458
DC. - in Prod. 1830: 254
Koord., Minah. 1898: 15
Harms - in K. Sch. & Laut., Fl. Schutzgeb. 1900: 485
Miq. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1863: 15
Boerl. - in Handl. 1890: 647
Back. & Bakh.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 167
Corner, Ways. Trees. 1940: 156
Span. - in Linnaea. 1841: 208
Merr., Int. Rumph. 1917: 409
Philipson - in Blumea. 1978: 169
Heyne, Nutt. Pl. 1927: 1209

Synonymy

Polyscias cumingiana (Presl) F.-Vill., Nov. App.: 102. 1880
  • Panax pinnatum Lamk in Encycl. 2: 715. 1788
  • Panax secundum Schult. in Syst. 6: 215. 1820
  • Panax bandanense Zipp. ex Span. in Linnaea 15: 208. 1841
  • Paratropia cumingiana Presl, Epim.: 250. 1851
  • Nothopanax pinnatum (Lamk) Miq. in Bonplandia 4: 139. 1856
  • Nothopanax cumingii (Presl) Seem., Fl. Vit.: 114. 1865
  • Aralia filicifolia C. Moore in Ill. Hortic. 23: t. 240. 1876
  • Arthrophyllum pinnatum (Lamk) Clarke in Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 734. 1879
  • Panax cumingiana (Presl) Rolfe in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21: 310. 1884
  • Aralia naumannii E. in Bot. Jahrb. 7: 469. 1886
  • Panax crispatum Bull, Cat.: 9. 1888
  • Panax ornatum Bull, Cat.: 9. 1888
  • Polyscias cumingii (Presl) Harms in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3: 45. 1894
  • Polyscias rumphiana Harms in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3: 45. 1894
  • Nothopanax crispatum (Bull) Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 7: Bot. 241. 1912
  • Nothopanax ornatum (Bull) Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 7: Bot. 241. 1912
  • Polyscias filicifolia (C. Moore) Bailey in Rhodora 18: 153. 1916
  • Polyscias sorongensis Gibbs, Arfak: 216. 1917
  • Anomopanax cumingianus (Presl) Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 17: 300. 1920
  • Scutellaria secunda subsp. angustifolia Rumph. in Herb. Amb.: t. 32