Chenopodium murale

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Chenopodium murale

Diagnosis

Similar taxa. Chenopodium murale is easily recognized from all other Chenopodium species on the flowers and fruits. Vegetative material may be similar to Chenopodium album (15) and Chenopodium urbicum (7), but Chenopodium murale has a more leafy inflorescence, more dentate bracts and the teeth of a leaf are more variable in size. Espécie muito próxima de Chenopodium album , distingue-se no entanto pela associação dos caracteres das folhas,lobos do cálice e das sementes. Os materiais vegetativos são de difícil separação. Chenopodium longidjawense A. Peter is probably Chenopodium murale , but the type being no longer extant, there is an element of doubt. The hairs on some of the anthers, noted by Peter, are probably fungal.

Biology And Ecology

Très vulgaire dans les décombres, les cultures et les bords des chemins dans toutes les îles, y comprisAlegranza. Habitat. Urban habitats: waste ground, streets, ports (formerly often with ballast), warehouse areas. Cosmopolita, ruderal e nitròfila, muito frequente como infestante das culturas e em terrenos incultos e degradados.

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan presentA,B; Iran presentA; Iraq presentC; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon presentD, Syria presentD); Oman presentE; Palestine (Israel presentF); Transcaucasus (Azerbaijan presentG); Turkmenistan presentA, Asia-Tropical: Pakistan presentA, Europe: Austria presentH; Belgium presentI; Corse presentJ; Poland presentK, Southern America: Peru presentL
Madère, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie,Tripolitaine,Marmarique, Cyrénaïque, Europe,Caucase,AsieMineure, Syrie, Palestine, Arabie,Egypte, etc.

Distribution. Nem[-BNem]. - Probably archaeophytic (but ± weakly established) in parts of D and southern S, elsewhere a more recent and largely ephemeral ballast and grain alien. - D scattered to rare on the islands and rapidly declining except perhaps in coastal urban habitats in the southeast ( Sjæ and Brn); in Jylland a rare casual, found in NJy Skagen 1968, �lborg 1963, ØJy Endelave 1906, Fredericia 1916, Randers 1975, 1978, Samsø (Onsbjerg) 1891, 1917, �rhus 1895, 1963, 1970, Vejle 19 Ì 6, 1930, N fairly many 19th century records on the southeastern coast from Ø /to VA, recent only Ak Oslo 2000 and Te Skien 1989 (grain mill); Ro Stavanger 1988 (grain mill), HoKvam 1947 (on ore), SF Jølster 1988 (field, probably manured with refuse from poultry farm or mill), MR Kristiansund 1866 and STSkaun 1950-51 (grain mill) and Trondheim 1948. S now very rarely seen; previously ± established in the south and on the western coast: Sk known from more than 50 places, in the 1990's still in 5 places, BhG known from 26 parishes, latest record Skaftö 1960; elsewhere a rare casual, recently recorded only from Vg Hällekis 1997-2001, Lerum 1962, Ög Norrköping 1961 and Dir Grangärde 1958. F a few casual occurrences mainly in ballast places (A, U and KP) and other loading places and railway and mill areas in V, EH and EP; in V Turku (Ruissalo) a ± persistent weed in the botanic garden; mainly brought in from more southern parts of Europe, in two cases probably with maize from America. I INo Akureyri 1946.

Mediterranean Europe, N Africa and subtropical Asia; anthropochorous elsewhere in subtropical, tropical and temperate zones; in Europe common only in the Mediterranean.

N.V.: FEDEGOSA (Santo Antão,São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santiago, Fogo, Brava); PADJA-GOSA ou PALHA-GROSSA (Brava).

Tanganyika. Masai District: 01 Doinyo Sambu, Feb. 1926,Haarer B. 156!; Moshi District: 01 Molog, 2 July 1945,Greenway 7520!; Hpwapwa, 3 Mar. 1931, Hornby 381!

Distb. K3, 4; T2, 5; a cosmopolitan weed

Kenya. Naivasha District: Gilgil R., Dec.,Scott Elliot 6571! and Kedong, Mt. Margaret, June 1940, Bally 911a (mixed with 911)!; Nairobi, Marlborough Estate, Sept. 1939, Bally 114 in CM. 11325!
A. I.C. Hedge, H. Akhani, H. Freitag, G. Kothe-Heinrich, D. Podlech, S. Rilke & Pertti Johannes Uotila 1997: Chenopodiaceae: p.38, B. Kitamura, S. 1960: Flora of Afghanistan, C. K.H. Rechinger 1964: Flora of Lowland Iraq, D. Paul Mouterde 1966: Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, E. Shahina A. Ghazanfar 1992: An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman. – Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 3-149: p.39, F. Michael Zohary 1966: Equisetaceae to Moringaceae 1: p.142, G. I.C. Hedge, H. Akhani, H. Freitag, G. Kothe-Heinrich, D. Podlech, S. Rilke & Pertti Johannes Uotila 1997: Chenopodiaceae [p.38], H. Wolfgang Adler & Alexander Ch. Mrkvicka 2003: Die Flora Wiens, gestern und heute: p.153, I. Jacques Lambinon & Filip Verloove 2012: Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du G-.D. de Luxembourg, du nord de la France et des Régions voisines, 6th: p.160, J. Daniel Jeanmonod & Jacques Gamisans 2007: Flora Corsica: p.327, K. Marie Zajac, Adam Zajac & Bogdan Zemanek 2006: Flora Cracoviensis Secunda: p.65, L. J. Francis MacBride 1937: Flora of Peru Part 2, No. 2, ser. 2, 13: p.474

Etymology

In spite of its Latin name, in Africa as in England, it is no use searching for Chenopodium murale on walls.

Description

Tige (30-50 c.) rameuse à la base; feuilles vales-rhomboidaleso, aiguës, inégalement dentées; grappes rameuses, divariquées, étalées horizontalement, les unes axillaires, les autres terminales. ①. Le long des murs, près des habitations. Juillet, Août. Therophyte (summer-annual). (5-) 10-60 cm. Stem subangular to angular, striped with green, hard, erect or sometimes ascending, often richly branched. Leaf-blades thin or usually fairly thick and slightly succulent, trullate to ovate or sometimes rhombic to broadly rhombic, not 3-lobed, (l-)2-6(-8) cm, dark olive-green or sometimes yellowish, usually ± sparsely farinose (young parts more densely farinose); base cuneate to truncate; apex acute to obtuse; margin usually serrate, often coarsely and irregularly so; teeth usually acute and slightly incurved. Bracts lanceolate, usually ± serrate. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, usually leafy, divaricately branched; glomerules dense clusters, small. Flowers bisexual or sometimes female. Tepals 5, connate about halfway, distinctly keeled near the apex, green or rarely red when old (especially the keel), with narrow membranous margin and obtuse apex. Stamens 5. Stigmas 2(-3), 0.2-0.4 mm. Nut falling with the perianth; pericarp firmly adherent to the seed, strongly papillose. Seed horizontal, orbicular in outline, 1.2-1.4 mm; edge slightly to distinctly keeled; seed-coat black, strongly pitted; pits ± isodiametric. - Mid-summer to late summer. [2n=36] Erva anual até 110 cm de altura,erecta ou suberecta, robusta, geralmente muito ramificada, verde-escura, por vezes avermelhada, com pêlos vesiculares em particular nas partes mais jovens mas em regra pouco densos. Folhas com pecíolo até 5 cm e limbo até 9 x 6 cm, geralmente ovado-anguloso, acunheado na base, agudo a obtuso no ápice, irregularmente dentado na margem com dentes robustos, ascendentes e geralmente muito agudos. Inflorescências folhosas, terminais e nas axilas das folhas superiores, compostas de cimeiras bíparas até 5 cm longas. Flores com 1,0-1,5 mm de diâmetro, esverdeadas. Cálice com 5 segmentos conatos abaixo do meio, cuculados, obtusamente carenados a conspicuamente cristados próximo do ápice, papilosos externamente e nas margens hialinas. Estames 5, com filetes aplanados. Fruto com pericarpo persistente e muito difícil de separar da semente. Semente com 1,2-1,5 mm de diâmetro, lenticular, agudamente carenada, negra, brilhante; testa com pontuações arredondadas muito numerosas. Annual up to 90 cm. high, upright or spreading, normally much branched, green, rarely red-tinged, mealy especially on young parts but rarely densely so. Leaves variable, commonly rhombic-ovate, rarely narrower, about 1 *5-9 cm. long and 0*8-5 (-7) cm, wide, without any tendency for especially prominent basal lobes, but with several coarse irregular ascending usually sharp teeth (about 5-15 teeth on each margin, rarely fewer). Inflore cences leafy, composed of divaricately branched cymes up to 5 cm. long, terminal and from upper axils. Flowers greenish, minute, about 1-1-5 mm. in diameter. Sepals 5, papillose on margins and outside, each with a blunt raised green keel towards apex only. Stamens 5. Pericarp veiy difficult to detach from seed. Seeds (Fig. 2/3, p. 3) black, somewhat shining, 1-2- 1*5 mm. in diameter, acutely keeled; testa under microscope marked with very close minute rounded pits.

Discussion

Utilidade: medicinal. "Quando se tem dores de cabeça, pila-se esta erva, mistura-se com clara de ovo e faz-se um emplastro sobre a testa, amarrando com um pano" (Santiago, Barbosa 9222). "Tira as dores; quando se está dorido de uma pancada, pila-se com sal e aplica-se na parte a curar; não se aplica nas feridas mas só nas pisaduras" (Fogo, Barbosa 6236). Variation. Chenopodium murale is decidedly variable in size, habit and leaves, often doubtless due to habitat. Dr. Aellen has determined Haarer B. 156 (K!) as Chenopodium murale var. spissidentatum Murr in Mag. Bot. Lapok 2: 11, t. 8, fig. 32 (1903) ( Chenopodium murale var. spissidentatum Aell. in Verh. Naturf. Gesellsch. Basel 41: 87 (1930) . This represents a form with the teeth on the leaves rather more numerous, closer and more prominent than usual, but the difference is at best but slight and can readily be matched in Europe. For the present it is preferably considered, with other comparable extremes known, elsewhere but lacking any geographical correlation, which will very probably turn up in our area, as falling within the normal range of variation, of Chenopodium murale .

Other

D Mur-Gåsefod. F rauniosavikka. N gatemelde. S gatmålla. Syn.? Chenopodium longidjawense A. Peter , F.D.O.-A. 2: 204 & 22, t. 26, fig. 1 (1932 & 1938)., Type: Tanganyika, Arusha District, Lengijawe, 1850-1880 m., Peter 42635 \l (B, holo. †)

Habitat

Hab. A weed of crops, old cultivations and pasture land; 1070-1950 m.

Citation

Bak. & C. B. Cl. in E.T.A. 6 (1): 78 (1909).
A. Chevalier in Rev. Bot. Appi. Agric. Trop. 15: 1004 (1935).
A, Hansen & Sunding in Sommerfeltia 17: 86 (1993).
Sp. PL: 219 (1753).
Linnaeus, Sp. pi.: 219 (1753).
Sp. PL 219 (1753).
Aellen in F R. 24: 343 (1928).

Not marked-up

8. A. des murs.

, , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Toute l'année. 9. Figs 21, L, 8 2. , 3. ,

Materials Examined

Santo Antão: Margens da ribeira de Fontaínhas, fl. & fr. 05.IV. 1956,Barbosa 7137 (CECV; LISC). São Vicente: entre Salamansa e Mindelo, próximo de Morbé, 280 m, fl. & fr. 09.XI.1990, Matos 6725-A ( LÍSC). Santa Luzia: Ilhéu Branco, 240 m, fl. & fr. 09.111.1968, Naurois s.n. (LISC). São Nicolau: a 3 km de Carriçaí, 250 m,fi. 29.1.1992,Matos & I Gomes 7016 (CECV; LISC). Sal: Espargos, Valado,12 m, fl. & fr. 30.111.1988, Matos 6375 (CECV; LISC). Boavista: fl. & fr_ 7-9.VII. 1934, A. Chevalier 45843 (P), Maio: Figueira da Horta, fr. 10.XI.1964, Malato-Beliz & Guerra 216 (CECV; LISC). Santiago: Serra da Malagueta, Chã Figueira, 800 m,fl. 18.1.1983,Barbosa, Matos & I. Silva 14252 (CECV; LISC). Fogo: entre Cova Matinho e Mosteiros, 200 m, fl. 04.XI.1983, Matos 5559 (CECV; LISC). Brava: Nova Sintra, fi. & fr, 02.IV.1982, Barbosa 13992 (CECV; LISC).