Chenopodium foliosum

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Chenopodium foliosum

Diagnosis

Similar taxa. Chenopodium foliosum differs from Chenopodium capitatum (2) in having more dentate leaves and bracts, bracteate upper glomerules which are red (not reddish violet) in colour, and larger seeds with flat to grooved edge. - See also Chenopodium exsuccum (rare casual).

Biology And Ecology

Habitat. Formerly grown as a vegetable (for leaves and “berries”) and as an ornamental; in the 1990's seed again for sale, often under the name of Chenopodium capitatum . In the 19th and the early 20th century a ± frequent garden escape and relic; today rarely so, butwith some increase in the late 1990's. Also waste ground and filling soil near ports (formerly often on ballast), mills, railways, tips and soya factory areas.

Distribution

Distribution. Not indigenous (see under Habitat). - D old records from all provinces except VJy and Brn; recent ones only ØJy �rhus 1963, SJy Sønderborg 1975, FyL Nørre Lyndelse 1959, Odense 1970, Langeskov 1977, Sjæ Slagelse 1967, Amager 1973-74 and LFM Nysted 1996. N old records from Ak Oslo, Bærum, Op Øystre Slidre, Bu Drammen, Hønefoss, Hole, Kongsberg, Vf Holmestrand, Larvik, Te Porsgrunn, Skien, Seljord, Ro Stavanger, Ho Bergen, Sund and ST Trondheim; after 1950 only Op Lunner 1967 and Bu Modum 1953, 1956. S scattered, mainly old, records north to Dls and southeastern Dir and along the coast to Vb, mainly ephemeral, but temporarily established in Vg Karlsborg 1878-1962, Upl Stockholm 1883-1931 and Uppsala 1792-1954; also recorded from Vrm but no specimens have been seen. F rare in A (established, 1862-1905 at least, in Bomarsund castle ruins), V, U and EH; St Pori, ES Imatra, Kouvola and Valkeala, EP Kristiinankaupunki and Vaasa, PS Kuopio, KP Kokkola, Kn Kajaani, OP Oulu and PeP Rovaniemi; after 1950 only some records from V, EH and ES; of garden origin or unintentionally brought in, mainly from Russia, once from Turkey.

Mountains from the Himalaya through Asia Minor and the Alps to the Iberian Peninsula; an established alien in C and E Europe.

Description

Therophyte (summer-annual). Almost glabrous, 10-70 cm; stem and leaves rarely red. Stem subangular, green to yellowish, slightly striped, hard, erect, fairly richly branched; branches spreading, long. Leaves fairly succulent. Lower leaves with up to 17 cm long petiole; blade triangular, 3-8(-10) cm, usually longer than wide, coarsely dentate, the largest ones doubly dentate in the basal part. Middle leaves fairly short-petiolate; blade with hastate base; margin sparsely and irregularly dentate, entire in the apical part. Bracts lanceolate, with forward-projecting basal lobes, sometimes with several teeth (uppermost ones entire). Inflorescences spike-like, of (sub)sessile glomerules, bracteate almost to the top; glomerules compact, globose, 3-10 mm thick. Flowers bisexual or female. Tepals 3-5, connate about halfway, obtuse, persistent in fruit, becoming red and succulent, especially in inflorescences on the main axis and primary branches. Stamens 1-5. Stigmas 2, 0.2-0.3 mm. Nut with firmly adherent, thin pericarp; glomerules in fruit mulberry-like from the succulent tepals. Seed usually vertical, orbicular to broadly ovate in outline, 1-1.3 mm; edge flat to grooved; seed-coat blackish red to blackish brown, dull, very slightly striate or reticulate. - Midsummer to late summer. [2n=18]

Other

- , - - Type: Linnaean Herbarium 14.1 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by D Aks-Jordbærspinat. F marjasavikka. N bærmelde. S bärmålla.

Citation

Ascherson, FI. Brandenburg 1: 572 (1864).

Not marked-up

1. , Figs 2A, 4A