Chenopodium ambrosioides

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Primary tabs

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Figure

- Fig. 15 Fig. 15. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. : A, flowering branch, x 3/4; B, on left, complete pistillate flower, on right, pistillate flower longitudinally dissected, x 20; D, on left, complete bisexual flower, on right, bisexual flower longitudinally dissected, x 20; F, young fruit, x 20; G, achene, x 20. Drawing by P. Fawcett, reprinted from Correll, D.S. & H.B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago.

Diagnosis

Similar taxa. Chenopodium ambrosioides is similar to Chenopodium anthelminticum and Chenopodium multifidum (rare casuals).

Individuals Association

Record basis:
Derived Unit
Descriptions:
derived from:
Record basis:
Field Unit
Collector:
Bolle
Locality:
Sine loc.
Record basis:
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Record basis:
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Collector:
Bolle
Locality:
Bufadero
Record basis:
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Field Unit
Locality:
Arucas
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
Record basis:
Field Unit
Collector:
Bourg
Locality:
Isleta
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
Record basis:
Field Unit
Locality:
Barranco d'Anavigo
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
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Field Unit
Locality:
Lairaga
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
Record basis:
Field Unit
Locality:
Laguna
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
Record basis:
Field Unit
Locality:
Barranco de los Molinos pres La Questa
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
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Field Unit
Locality:
Puerto de Cabras
Record basis:
Derived Unit
derived from:
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Field Unit
Locality:
Lomo Blanco
Record basis:
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derived from:
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Field Unit
Locality:
Guimar

Biology And Ecology

Décombres et lieux incultes dans la région maritime, où il paraît bien plus abondant qu'à l'époque de la rédaction de laFlore de Webb etBerthelot. Biology. Flowering, but probably not able to set seed in Norden. Dispersa pelas regiões tropicais, subtropicais c temperadas quentes dc todo o Mundo. Brva ruderai e nitròfila, frequente nos leitos mais ou menos húmidos das ribeiras, margens de levadas, culturas de regadio e outros solos húmidos, por vezes cultivada junto das habitações, em altitudes dc 100 a 770 in.

Etymology

Vernacular names: Guyana: matouosh; mastruz (Portuguese Guyanese); metroshi (Macushi Amerindian). Suriname: tingi-menti; woron-menti (Creole). French Guiana: Woron-wiwiri (Boni); aapoa (Wayapi); zerba vers, poudre aux vers (Creole); semen contra.

Description

Therophyte (summer-annual). Strongly aromatic, up to 60 cm, ± hairy and with subsessile glands especially on the lower leaf surfaces (almost absent on upper leaf surfaces); glands with pyriform head. Stem subangular, yellowish or striped with green, erect, branched. Leaves sessile or with a 0-5-1.5 cm long petiole; blade lanceolate to elliptic, 3-15 cm, coarsely serrate, sometimes incised or sinuate, pure green; base attenuate; apex obtuse to acute. Inflorescences spike-like, bracteate or ebracteate; glomerules small. Flowers dimorphic. Terminal flowers bisexual, with 5 stamens; tepals 5, connate c. halfway. Lateral flowers female; tepals 5, united almost to the apex. Tepals glabrous to sparsely pubescent, often with subsessile glands, herbaceous. Stigmas 3-4, slender, c. 0.5 mm. Nut falling with the perianth; pericarp not adherent to the seed. Seed mostly horizontal, broadly ovate in outline, 0.7-0.9 mm; edge rounded; seed-coat brown, glossy, almost smooth. - Late summer to late autumn. [2n=32] - Fig. 15 Annual or perennial, taprooted herb. Stem 0.3-l.0(-1.5) m tall, strongly scented of mustard, ribbed, often somewhat woody, much-branched. Petiole 1-2 cm long; blade lanceolate, oblanceolate, oblong-elliptic, rhombic-elliptic or ovate, 0.6-12.5 x 1-5.5 cm, entire to shallowly dentate OI' sinuately pinnatifid, apex acute to obtuse, sometimes apiculate, base cuneate, sessile glandular resin dots, especially on lower surface, glabrous or sparsely puberulent above, or puberulent beneath especially on veins, yellowish-green. Inflorescence a single cyme Of spikes of cymes; flowers in glomerules of 4-6, along major axes, in groups of 1-3 on apical, minor axes; glomerules 1-bracteate, bract linear to (sub)foliaceous, to ca. 2.5 cm long; flowers sessile or subsessile. Tepals (3-)5, greenish, narrowly ovate, 0.7-1.3 mm long, glabrous OI' puberulent and usually gland-dotted, fused ca. half-way, cucullate and folded over fruit; stamens (3-)5; filaments about as long EIS tepals, anthers orbicular, 0.5 mm long; stigmas sessile or subsessile, spreading. Pericarp not adherent to seed, thin and decaying; seeds lenticularcochleate to ovoid, 0.6-0.8 mm in diam., horizontally or vertically oriented, smooth, lustrous, reddish-brown. Erva anual ou perene de curta duração até 180 cm de altura, erecta, muito ramificada, frequentemente com ramos prostrado-ascendentes desde a base, forte¬ mente aromática, verde, curtamente pubescente mas com glândulas amarelas ou ambarinas sésseis, particularmente numerosas na página inferior das folhas. Folhas curtamente pecioladas, as inferiores com limbo até 14,0 x 4,5 cm, lanceolado a linear-oblanceolado,grosseiramente dentado, as superiores progressivamente menores e tendendo a lineares e inteiras. Inflorescência uma grande panícula de pseudoglomérulos de flores mais ou menos densos, dispostos em pseudo-espigas nos ramos de última ordem; brácteas presentes na base dos pseudoglomérulos, pelo menos nos inferiores. Cálice com 3-5 segmentos nas flores femininas e 4-5 nas bissexuadas,glabros a pubescentes, glandulares, unidos em grau variável,não carenados, lisos. Estames 4-5. Fruto com pericarpo facilmente removível. Semen¬ tes em cada pseudo-glomérulo, umas verticais, outras horizontais, 0,6-0,8 mm em diâmetro, castanho-avermelhadas, brilhantes; testa com raras linhas sinuosas difi¬ cilmente observáveis. Herb up to 120 cm. high, usually annual, rarely a short-lived perennial, polymorphic (principally in America),upright, much branched, green (? occasionally red-tinged), variably pubescent or hairy especially on stem, also with numerous yellowish sessile glands particularly on lower side of leaves, strongly aromatic. Leaves variable, lanceolate in outline to more rarely elliptic or obovate, mostly 1.5-10 cm. long and 0.4-4 3 cm. wide, entire to laciniate or pinnatifid; upper leaves and bracts smaller and narrower. Inflorescence an ample much-branched panicle with small sessile flower-clusters arranged spicately along the ultimate branches. Flowers greenish, 0-5-1-5 mm. in diameter. Sepals 3-5 (? flowers) 4-5 (? flowers), pubescent to glabrous, glandular, variably connate, smooth or very rarely keeled. Stamens 4-5. Pericarp easily removed. Seeds deep red-brown to blackish or shining, 0.5-1-25 (-1.5) mm. in diameter, bluntly keeled,testa under microscope almost smooth or shallowly and irregularly pitted, usually marked also with sinuose lines. Uses: Generally found as a Weed, sometimes cultivated as a medicinal plant for the leaves, which are used as an anthelmintic (vermifuge) in the Guianas (Cook 250; Ostendorf (1962); and Moretti 913). The French Guianans use an infusion of six leaves mixed with salt in a cup, which is reportedly very beneficial for the liver, and as a children's vermifuge (Oldeman B.3909). According to Henkel 3467, the plant is used as a malaria treatment by Wapishiana Amerindians of Guyana.

Discussion

Medicinal: o chá da planta é utilizado com muita frequência como venni fugo e antipirètico, em casos de constipações e gripes; também por vezes utilizado cm doenças do ligado.

Other

D Vellugtende Gåsefod. F sitruunasavikka. N sitronmelde. S citronmålla. Chenopodium hircinum Chenopodium opulifolium - Type: Linnaean Herbarium 313.13 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by Type: Herb Linneus No. 313.13 (LINN, not seen).

Citation

Aellen & Just in Amer. Midi. Nat. 30: 50-51 (1953).
A. Chevalier in Rev. Bot. Appi. Agric. Trop. 15: 1005 (1935).
Sp. PI. 219 (1753).
Sp. PL: 219 (1753).
A. Hansen & Sunding in Sommerfeltia 17: 86 (1993). Est. II.
Hauman in F.C.B. 2: 2 (1951).
Bak. & C. B. CL in F.T.A. 6 (1): 79 (1909).
Ulbr. in E. & P. Pf. ed. 2,16c: 491, Fig. 183 K-Q (1934).
Linnaeus, Sp. pi.: 219 (1753).

Not marked-up

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Materials Examined

Selected specimens: Guyana: South Rupununi Savanna, Aishalton airstrip, Henkel 3467 (US); Rupununi Savanna, Cook 250 (NY, U); Ireng R. near Orinduik Falls, Essequibo County, Irwin et al. 474 (US). Suriname: Cultis, Focke 1395 (U). French Guiana: Cayenne, Jardin pnma, Kodjoed 91 (CAY); Commune de Remire, Ile de Cayenne, Wittingthon 59 (CAY). Santo Antão: Chã de Igreja, fl. & fr. 03.IV. 1956, Barbosa 7103 (C1:CV;【」SC). São Vicente: Chã de MadeiraL il. & fr. 07.XI.I990, Matos 6710 ( CÍ-CV: LISC). [S5o NicoIau|. Boa vista: Fundo de Figueira, 11. 06. V. 1956, Barbosa 7386 (CKCV: LISC). Maio: Vila do Maio, il. & fr. 21.XI. 1964, Malat o-Be Hz 次 Guerra 448 (LISC). Santiago: São Jorge dos Órgãos, ribeira de Sào Jorge, 11. 22.XI.1987, Matos 6322 (CHCV; LISC). Fogo: Chã das Caldeiras, il. 23.VII.1934. Chevalier 44861 a (P). Brava: Nova Sintra. 11. 02.IV. 1982, Barbosa 13994 (CFXV; LISC).