Chenopodium opulifolium

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Chenopodium opulifolium

Diagnosis

Similar taxa. Small-leaved plants of Chenopodium opulifolium are sometimes mistaken for Chenopodium berlandieri (19), Chenopodium suecicum (14) or Chenopodium album (15), all of which may have ± 3-lobed leaves. In Chenopodium opulifolium the leaf-blade is relatively wider than in any of the others.

Biology And Ecology

Biology. Usually flowering in late autumn. The seeds rarely ripen in Norden.

Distribution

The Mediterranean region and C Europe to SW Asia, south to tropical Africa.

Distribution. A casual alien; earlier mainly brought in with ballast, more recently usually with grain (mainly from Russia but also from the Mediterranean) and occasionally with cork. - D c. 50 records from c. 30 localities 1886-1973, most frequent after 1926; NJy �lborg 1933, 1955, ØJy 4 localities, latest Assentoft 1973, FyL Middelfart 1960, Odense 1910, Svendborg 1911, 1956, Sjæ c. 20 localities, mainly in the København area, latest Hagesholm 1969, LFM Nykøbing 1936, 1942, Stege. N most records fairly old (ballast places and grain mills) in coastal towns from 0/to Ho Bergen; ST Skaun 1930; recently in VA Kristiansand 1969 (granaries) and SF Jølster 1988 (field, probably manured by poultry farm or mill refuse). S Sk c. 10 localities 1891-1932, Landskrona 1963, Bl Karlskrona 1894-96,1933,1943, Karlshamn 1897, Lösen 1818, Gtl

Visby 1888, Kim Kalmar 1952, BhG numerous records from the Göteborg area 1923-62, Kungälv 1926-27, Vg Borås 1914, Västra Tunhem (on ore from Turkey) 1958, Srm Nacka several records 1894-1931, Vsm Västerås 1926, Upi Kårsta 1998, Sollentuna 1925, Stockholm several records 1913-24, Uppsala 1903, Älvkarleby 1874, Gii Gävle 1929, 1930, Vb Umeå 1904 (ballast), LL Kvikkjokk. 1864. A report from S Hl Halmstad 1911 (Georgson et al. 1997) is based on misdetermined C. suecicum; for 2 other reports from the province (Ahlfvengren 1924) there are no vouchers. F V Turku 1953-63, Naantali 1975, 1994, Raisio 1961-62, U Helsinki 1901- 64 (also with Moroccan cork), Elimäki 1985, EH Nokia 1972,1992, Tampere 1969-75, EP Vaasa 1953, PH Kuopio 1947 and OP Oulu I960.

Description

Therophyte (summer-annual). 20-80(-200) cm, young parts often greyish-green due to a dense cover of vesicular hairs. Stem terete to subangular, striped with green or uniformly greenish, hardly ever red-tinged, without red spots in the axils, hard, usually erect, often branched especially near the base; branches fairly long. Leaves with petiole often almost as long as the blade, green, especially small leaves often densely farinose. Lower and middle leaf-blades broadly ovate to rhombic or trullate, usually slightly 3-lobed with short, prominent side-lobes, (1 -)2.5-4(-5) cm, as wide as long or slightly wider than long; base broadly cuneate to almost truncate; margin with several acute teeth or entire; apex acute to obtuse. Upper leaf-blades clearly longer than wide, with a pair of acute basal teeth or lobes. Bracts lanceolate, entire, acuminate to mucronate. Inflorescences often conspicuously grey-farinose, terminal and axillary, panicle-like or somewhat spike-like; glomerules numerous, relatively small. Flowers bisexual or female. Tepals 5, connate halfway, densely farinose, keeled to winged, with narrow membranous margin and ± obtuse apex. Stamens 5. Stigmas 2, 0.5-1.1 mm. Nut falling with the perianth; pericarp easily detached. Seed suborbicular in outline, 1.1-1.4 mm; edge rounded; seed-coat black, glossy, with obscure radial striae. - Late summer to autumn. [2n=54]

Discussion

Hybridization. Hybrids of Chenopodium opulifolium are known with Chenopodium album var. album .

Other

Koch & Ziz Fig. 12D D Kortbladet Gåsefod. F heisisavikka. N småmelde. S olvonmålla.

Citation

Koch & Ziz, Cat. pi.: 6 (1814).

Not marked-up

21.