Chenopodium album

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Primary tabs

Chenopodium album

Figure

Fig. 10. Chenopodium . Habit x 0.3. - A: Chenopodium suecicum (.PeP). - B: Chenopodium album var. album (EH). ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN

Diagnosis

Similar taxa. Chenopodium album , especially in the vegetative state or when represented by foreign provenances, is easily confused with several other species. Chenopodium missouriense (16) develops very late and has fairly narrow and coarsely serrate leaf-blades and smaller seeds. Chenopodium opulifolium (21) has wider, 3-lobed leaf-blades and 3-lobed to entire, mucronate bracts. Chenopodium pratericola (\2) is more silvery and has narrower, apiculate leaves. Chenopodium suecicum (14) has thinner leaves which are more distinctly 3-lobed and more serrate, toothed bracts, winged tepals and orbicular seeds with rounded edge and coarse ornamentation. Chenopodium striatiforme (17), Chenopodium strictum (18) and Chenopodium virgatum (rare casual) have smaller, more ovate seeds and more elliptic to narrowly truncate, regularly dentate leaves. Chenopodium berlandieri (19) and Chenopodium hircinum (20) have honeycomb-pitted seeds; the former further deviates by apiculate, fairly few-toothed leaf-blades; Chenopodium hircinum (20) as well as Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium acerifolium (rare casuals) have coarsely lobed, more distinctly 3-lobed leaves. - See also Chenopodium borbasioides , Chenopodium giganteum , Chenopodium probstii and Chenopodium purpurascens (rare casuals). Chenopodium album is unquestionably very closely related to Chenopodium opulifolium , which is far commoner in East Africa. Chenopodium album differs in the mature leaves being decidedly longer than wide, often thinner in texture, and in the smoother surface of the seed when seen under the microscope. In addition the inflorescence of Chenopodium album is normally greener and not so densely glaucous-mealy as in Chenopodium opulifolium , and the stem is much more commonly tinged with red. Some authors have stated that the branching of Chenopodium opulifolium is divaricate, while that of Chenopodium album is stricter; this is often a useful character, but I would ask observers to test its constancy in East Africa.

Biology And Ecology

Décombres de la zone maritime inférieure.

Distribution

Africa: Zaire presentA, Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan presentB; Gulf States (United Arab Emirates presentC); Iraq presentD; Kuwait presentC; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon presentE, Syria presentE); Oman presentC,F; Palestine (Israel presentG); Saudi Arabia presentC; Yemen presentC, Europe: Austria presentH; Belgium presentI; Corse presentJ; Netherlands presentK; Poland presentL, Southern America: Argentina South presentM
Madère, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Europe, Tripolitaine, Cyrénaïque, Egypte.

Almost cosmopolitan, avoiding cold and tropical regions; one of the world’s most widespread weeds.

Distribution. For Norden, see the varieties.

Kenya. Kisumu-Londiani District: Londiani, July 1953, C. van Someren 194! & C. van Someren in E.A.H. 10420! & Lumbwa, July 1953, C. van Someren 157!

Distb. K5; widespread in the temperate and warm parts of the Northern Hemisphere; less common and possibly only an introduction further south, but found in S. America and Australia; in Africa (other than N.) recorded from the Belgian Congo, Portuguese East Africa and S. Africa Hab. A weed of cultivation, probably recently introduced

Espécie actualmente cosmopolita, em particular no Hemisfério Norte, comporta-se como infestante de culturas em numerosas regiões do Globo.
A. Lucien Hauman 1951: Chenopodiaceae. – In: Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, B. Kitamura, S. 1960: Flora of Afghanistan: p.99, C. Loutfy Boulos 1991: A Synopsis of Chenopodium L. Studies in the Chenopodiaceae of Arabia: 4. – Kew Bulletin 46(2): 301-305, D. K.H. Rechinger 1964: Flora of Lowland Iraq, E. Paul Mouterde 1966: Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, F. Shahina A. Ghazanfar 1992: An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman. – Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 3-149: p.38, G. Michael Zohary 1966: Equisetaceae to Moringaceae 1: p.142, H. Wolfgang Adler & Alexander Ch. Mrkvicka 2003: Die Flora Wiens, gestern und heute: p.154, I. Jacques Lambinon & Filip Verloove 2012: Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du G-.D. de Luxembourg, du nord de la France et des Régions voisines, 6th: p.160, J. Daniel Jeanmonod & Jacques Gamisans 2007: Flora Corsica: p.327, K. R.B. van de Bosch 1850: Prodromus Florae Batavae 1: p.220, L. Marie Zajac, Adam Zajac & Bogdan Zemanek 2006: Flora Cracoviensis Secunda: p.64, M. Maevia N. Correa 1984: Flora Patagonica (Salicaceae a Cruciferae) 8

Description

Espèce très voisine de la précédente et de port identique; elle en diffère, d'une part, par les feuilles moyennes au moins 2 fois plus longues que larges et souvent plus grandes (jusqu'à 7-8 cm de long et 2-3 cm de large) à dents plus nombreuses, les supérieures de plus en plus étroites et moins dentées, et par une pruinosité souvent plus marquée (caractère très variable) et, d'autre part, par ses akènes à péricarpe se détachant facilement (par frottement entre les doigts) de la graine, qui est plus comprimée, à arête aiguë ou même carénée.N Therophyte (summer-annual). (10-)30-70(-150) cm, ± farinose. Stem subangular to angular, striped with greyish to bluish green, often with purple colour especially in the leaf axils, hard, usually erect, variously branched, often in the basal part. Leaves with petioles usually shorter than the blade; blade fairly thick, dirty greyish green to bluish, in middle leaves rhombic to ovate or lanceolate, sometimes somewhat 3-lobed, (l-)2-5(-7) x (0.7-)l-2.5(~3.5) cm; base ± cuneate; apex fairly acute; margin entire or shallowly and irregularly serrate to dentate by usually fairly obtuse teeth. Bracts narrowly lanceolate; apex acute to acuminate; margin entire. Chenopodium ficifolium subsp. ficifolium Chenopodium suecicum Fig. 10. Chenopodium . Habit x 0.3. - A: Chenopodium suecicum (.PeP). - B: Chenopodium album var. album (EH). ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN Inflorescences mainly ebracteate, spike-like to panicle-like; glomerules of medium size, fairly closely set, solitary flowers fairly rare. Flowers bisexual or female. Tepals 5, connate halfway, ± farinose, ± keeled or sometimes (especially in terminal flowers) winged, with membranous margin; apex acute. Stamens 5. Stigmas 2(-3), c. 0.4 mm. Nut falling with the perianth; pericarp thin, easily detached. Seed horizontal, almost orbicular in outline (ratio length/width 1.04-1.12), 1.2-1.5 mm; edge fairly acute; seed-coat black, smooth or faintly radially striate, rarely more uneven or reticulate. Herb usually 10-150 cm. high, annual, normally much branched but sometimes lateral branches short and stem thus appearing subsimple, green or red-tinged, especially on stem, more or less grey-mealy especially on young parts. Leaves very variable, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, mostly distinctly longer than broad by normally at least times (but the juvenile leaves following the cotyledons may be almost as broad as long), from about 12 X 0.3 and 2.3 X 1-3 cm. to 5-4 X 31, 6-5 X 3.8, 7 X 1.5,7 X 3.7 and 8.2 X 5-5 cm., margins entire or more commonly with up to about 10 shallow teeth each side, prominent basal lobes not commonly present, apex of leaf acute, or particularly in the lower cauline leaves subacute to rounded; upper leaves and bracts progressively smaller. Inflorescence a usually ample panicle of very numerous small or medium (2-6 mm. in diameter) densely or laxly spicately or cymosely arranged dense rounded clusters (" glomerules ") of minute grey to green flowers, latter 1-1-5 mm. in diameter. Sepals 5, papillose on margins and outside, each with a prominent green keel in upper part. Stamens 5. Pericarp somewhat persistent but easily rubbed or scraped off seed. Seeds (Fig. 1,p. 2) black, shining, 1-2-1-6 (-1.85) mm. in diameter, bluntly keeled, testa under microscope marked with faint radial furrows further apart than in Chenopodium opulifolium , otherwise almost smooth. Erva anual geralmente muito ramificada, mais ou menos coberta de pêlos vesiculares cinzentos ou esbranquiçados e frequentemente avermelhada ou rosada,particularmente no caule e ramos. Folhas distintamente pecioladas; limbo muito variável na mesma planta, até 8 x 5 cm, ovado a lanceolado, agudo, inteiro ou mais frequentemente com até 10 dentes de cada lado, o mais próximo do pecíolo mais desenvolvido. Inflorescência uma panícula de pseudoglomérulos de flores mais ou menos densos, dispostos em racemos ou cimeiras. Flores com 1,0-1,5 mm de diâmetro, acinzentadas a esverdeadas. Cálice com 5 segmentos conspicuamente carenados, papilosos e com pêlos viscosos cinzentos externamente e nas margens. Estames 5. Fruto com pericarpo persistente mas facilmente separável da semente. Semente com c. 1,5 mm de diâmetro, lenticular, obtusamente carenada, negra, brilhante; testa com sulcos radiais irregulares escassos.
N. Lucien Hauman 1951: Chenopodiaceae. – In: Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi

Discussion

Variation. Chenopodium album in a wide sense is extremely variable, in size, branching habit, leaf shape, inflorescence habit as well as tepal and seed-coat characters. Some races probably developed together with certain cereals in relatively restricted areas; because of the extensive transport of grain these strains have become mixed and racial differences have been obscured. Much of the variation in morphology and especially in flowering time is correlated with differences in day-length. Generally, under short-day conditions Chenopodium album has more dentate leaves and more spike-like inflorescences. Many (but not all) strains of Chenopodium album have narrow photoperiodic demands. Most of these strains have their original areas outside Norden; when they grow up in Norden they may, due to the different light climate, be heavily modified and will often not set seed. Therefore, and since the variation in the native areas is largely unknown, many of these deviating plants have to be included in a widely delimited Chenopodium album . However, one variety, Chenopodium album var. reticulatum , is sufficiently well-known to be recognized taxonomically, and Chenopodium missouriense (16), Chenopodium borbasioides , Chenopodium giganteum , Chenopodium probstii and Chenopodium purpurascens ( rare casuals) are also treated separately, even though their status and delimitation are still partly unsettled. Hybridization. Hybrids of Chenopodium album var. album are known with Chenopodium opulifolium . Variation. In Europe this species is excessively variable and polymorphic, but the East African specimens appear typical. Other variants may well be introduced into our area in the future. Note. I have not given the extensive synonymy that there is for this species in Europe, as it is not relevant here. Referida por J. A. Schmidt (loc. cit.,1852) como frequente nas falési as marítimas de Santo Antão, sem menção de material colhido. A espécie tem vindo a ser assinalada em Cabo Verde apenas com referência à observação de Schmidt. Parece provável que a mesma tenha sido confundida com Chenopodium murale L. , espécie muito próxima que ocorre em Santo Antão.

Other

- Type: Linnaean Herbarium 313.8 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by . D Hvidmelet Gåsefod. F jauhosavikka. Fa hvítur gásafótur. I hélunjóli. N meldestokk. S svinmålla.

Habitat

Espèce typiquement rudérale et nitrophile extrêmement répandue comme « mauvaise herbe » dans les régions tempérées, mais jusqu'à présent très rarement observée au Congo belge.O
O. Lucien Hauman 1951: Chenopodiaceae. – In: Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi

Citation

A. Chevalier in Rev. Bot. Appi. Agric. Trop. 15: 1005 (1935).
Hauman in F.C.B. 2: 9 (1951).
Sp. Pl.: 219 (1753).
Bak. & C. B. Cl. in F.T.A. 6 (1): 77 (1909)
J. A. Schmidt, Beitn FI. Cap Verd. Ins.: 172 (1852).
Sp. PI. 219 (1753).
A. Hansen & Sunding in Sommerfeltia 17: 86 (1993).
Linnaeus, Sp. pi.: 219 (1753).

Not marked-up


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15. Figs 3E, H, 10B 1.
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Common Name

English (Great Britain): Fat-henP
P. Clive Stace 1997: New Flora of the British Isles, 2nd

Materials Examined

Indiqué par Broussonet, nous ne l'avons pas retrouvé. [Santo Antão]