Key for Gesneriaceae

1Lateral aerial branches with basal internodes much elongated in form of stolons
1'Lateral branches not elongated at their bases into stolons
2Plants stemless; inflorescences and leaves appearing to arise directly from tuber
2'Plants with obvious stems; inflorescences axillary or terminal
3Leaf venation subpalmate
3'Leaf venation pinnate
4Stems much shorter than leaves or with leaves crowded at apex
4'Stems becoming longer than leaves and leaves not crowded at apex
5Corollas red p.p.
5'Corollas white, sometimes with lobes lavender
6Peduncles about as long or longer than leaves and pedicels very short.
6'Peduncles shorter than leaves and pedicels obviously present
7Leaf blades round to acute at base
7'Leaf blades long attenuate at base
8Leaf blades with indumentum p.p.
8'Leaf blade glabrous or nearly so
9Leaves sessile or subsessile; inflorescences bracteate
9'Leaves obviously petiolate; inflorescences ebracteate
10Plants terrestrial, decumbent to erect
10'Plants epiphytic or if terrestrial then lianescent or clambering
11Ovary almost completely inferior; plants rhizomatous
11'Ovary superior or almost completely superior (Sinningia); plants with tubers, or lacking underground perennial stems, not rhizomatous
12Corollas purple or if orange-red then lobes tiny and green
12'Corollas orange, including spreading lobes
13Inflorescences lacking bracts and always with peduncles (except Besleria insolita) and pedicels
13'Inflorescences with bracts, or lacking peduncles
14Stems erect at apex, decumbent at base
14'Stems erect
15Leaf blades with indumentum p.p.
15'Leaf blade glabrous or nearly so
16Inflorescence clearly pedunculate
16'Inflorescence epedunculate or obscurely pedunculate
17Corollas spurred at base, strongly oblique in calyx
17'Corollas not spurred at base, erect in calyx
18Plants from tubers; fruit a capsule
18'Plants without tubers; fruit a berry
19Herbs or shrubs without tubers; corolla yellow; fruit a red berry
19'Herbs from tubers; corollas orange to red; fruit a dry green to brown capsule
20Anthers dehiscing by pores; stems glabrous, except sometimes at apex
20'Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; stems usually pubescent
21Fruit a red to dark red berry; extrafloral nectaries present
21'Fruit a capsule and often brightly colored inside; no extrafloral nectaries
22Corollas white or whitish, rarely yellow or cream-colored (in Paradrymonia maculata and then 4 lobes spreading and the 5th covering mouth of corolla tube, and nearly equal leaves)
22'Corollas red or yellow
23Leaves equal to unequal in a pair, smaller one shaped like larger one, not deciduous p.p.
23'Leaves strongly unequal in a pair, smaller one usually stipule-like or deciduous
24Ventral lobe of corolla entire
24'Ventral lobe of corolla long fimbriate p.p.
25Calyx lobes ovate to cordate at base, if corolla red then lower lobe yellow and not reflexed; fruit a green fleshy capsule
25'Calyx lobes narrowed at base, or if cordate then all 5 corolla lobes red and lower lobe reflexed (Columnea oerstediana); fruit a white or colored berry