Key for Sapindaceae

1Lianas or vines, often bearing a pair of coiled tendrils at the base of inflorescence; stems usually producing milky sap; leaves always with a well develop distal leaflet; stipules present although usually minute or early deciduous
1'Shrubs or trees (without tendrils); not producing milky sap; leaves with a rudimentary or a well developed distal leaflet; stipules absent
2Fruit a schizocarp, splitting into 3, indehiscent, winged mericarps (samaras)
2'Fruit a septicidal or septifragal, marginicidal capsule
3Leaves trifoliolate; thyrses with umbel-like units; flowers actinomorphic with an annular disc; mericarps with a distal wing
3'Leaves biternate, 5-foliolate or sometimes trifoliolate; thyrse racemiform; flowers zygomorphic with a unilateral disc modified into 2-4 lobes; mericarps with a proximal wing
4Capsules coriaceous or woody; seeds often sarcotestal
4'Capsules membranous; seeds not sarcotestal
5Leaves biternate; capsules inflated, with unwinged locules
5'Leaves trifoliolate; capsules flattened or slightly inflated, with winged locules
6Leaves simple; plant viscous
6'Leaves pinnately compound, trifoliolate or unifoliolate; plant not viscous
7Leaves trifoliolate or less often unifoliolate (recognized by the swollen distal portion of the petiole)
7'Leaves pinnately compound, with distal rudimentary leaflet
8Flowers apetalous, solitary and axillary or in short racemes; nectary disc cupular; stamens 5-6
8'Flowers petaliferous, in lateral cincinni along racemiform or paniculate thyrse; nectar disc unilateral, semiannular, or 2- 4-lobed; stamens 8
9Fruits baccate, indehiscent
9'Fruit a capsule or a schizocarp
10Fruit 1(2)-coccate, with 2(1) rudimentary cocci, late schizocarpic, separating into indehiscent globose mericarps, with fleshy pericarp containing much saponin; seeds globose, exarillate
10'Fruit ellipsoid or nearly globose, usually with a single locule; seed arillate or sarcotestal
11Fruits light brown; seeds with a thin, translucent-white, fleshy aril, easily removable to show a shiny dark brown testa (cultivated)
11'Fruits green, yellow, orange or rusty brown; seed with a fleshy testa
12Petals with 2 marginal projections or appendages, on or above the base, or lacking appendages; stamens spreading, broadly exposed
12'Petals with a well-developed single, adaxial, erect, petaloid appendage; stamens mostly erect, partially exposed (hidden by the petal’s appendages)
13Fruit red, with echinate pericarp (cultivated)
13'Fruit green, orangish yellow, reddish or rusty brown; pericarp not echinate
14Fruit a woody or leathery capsule; seeds covered at base by a detachable fleshy arillode
14'Fruit a schizocarp
15Petals without appendages; capsule reddish, of 1(2) subglobose cocci, one of the coccus usually rudimentary
15'Petals with adaxial appendage; capsule otherwise, if bicoccate, the coccus slightly flattened, and of similar size
16Ovary of two carpels; seeds with a large, triangular carunculate aril at base
16'Ovary of three carpels; seeds with non-prominent, cup-shaped aril
17Sepals connate at base into a cupular calyx; sepals as long as wide, subimbricate
17'Sepals free at base; sepals > twice as long as wide, imbricate
18Petals with an adnate appendage forming a pocket along most of its extension, the whole structure with 2 short marginal projections; leaflet entire or crenate on margins
18'Petals with a pair of marginal tomentose appendages; leaflet usually serrate or dentate on margins (C. diphylla entire)
19Capsules ferruginous-pubescent, 1.5-2 cm long, 3-locular
19'Capsules glabrous, red, 5-7 cm long, 3-4-locular (cultivated)
20Ovary 2-carpellate; schizocarps (1)2-coccate, woody, unwinged
20'Ovary 3-carpellate; schizocarps splitting into 3 chartaceous or membranous mericarps
21Fruits splitting into 3, samaroid mericarps, each with a proximal wing and a papery, inflated coccus
21'Fruits splitting into 3 membranous, inflated, unwinged, wrinkled mericarps