1Leaf blade distinctly peltate; inflorescence axillary (but in fact on a terminal, reduced leafless shoot), umbel-like
1'Leaf blades basely attached; inflorescences leaf-opposed, simple
2Leaves palmately veined or palmately-pinnately veined with secondary veins originating from the lower 1/4 of the primary vein
2'Leaves pinnately veined, i.e. secondary veins originating from the lower 1/3 to throughout the primary vein
3Veins originating from the base and 1 or 2 branching off the lower 1/4 of the primary vein
3'Veins all originating from the base
4Leaf base acute; cultivated
4'Leaf base rounded to cordate; in natural habitats
5Primary veins 9-11, leaf base deeply cordate, margin ciliate
5'Primary veins 5-7(-9), leaf base acute or rounded to subcordate, margin not ciliate
6Stem without spines; tertiary venation obscure
6'Stem often with spines opposite petiole; tertiary venation prominent below
7Leaf blades less than 3 cm wide
7'Leaf blades more than 3 cm wide
8Leaf base rounded to subcordate
8'Leaf base obtuse to acute
9Secondary veins 2-5 per side, originating from the lower 1/2 of the primary vein; floral bracts densely marginally fringed
9'Secondary veins 6-15 per side, originating throughout the primary vein; floral bracts glabrous
10Stem glabrous; leaf blade not scabrous above; secondary veins 2-3 per side; reported from high elevation
10'Stem villous; secondary veins ca. 5 per side; leaf blade somewhat scabrous above; known only from type collection, not from high elevation
11Stem retrosely pubescent; secondary veins 6-10 per side
11'Stem glabrous except for subnodal lines of hairs; secondary veins 8 or more per side
12Leaf blade 3-4 x as long as wide, apex acute to shortly acuminate; secondary veins 8-12 per side
12'Leaf blade 4-6 x as long as wide, apex long-acuminate; secondary veins 8-15 per side
13Leaf blades 14-35 cm wide, deeply lobed at base
13'Leaf blades less than 14 cm wide, or if wider then not distinctly lobed
14Fruits puberulent at apex
14'Fruits subglabrous
15Stems and leaves glabrous, but leaf margins ciliate
15'Another combination of characters for stems, leaves and margins
16Secondary veins 10-16, originating throughout the primary vein
16'Secondary veins 4-6, originating from the lower 1/2 of the primary vein
17Whole plant densely dark glandular dotted; stem glabrous; leaves sparsely villous on both sides
17'Plants not dark glandular dotted; stems with subnodal lines of hairs or glabrous or variously pubescent; leaves glabrous or variously pubescent
18Stems with subnodal lines of hairs
18'Stems glabrous or variously pubescent
19Leaf blade glabrous below
19'Leaf blade pubescent below
20Leaf base very unequally attached to petiole, difference 0.5-1(-3) cm
20'Leaf base equal or slightly unequally attached to petiole, to less than 0.5 cm
21Petiole without stalked glands (tubercles); leaf apex acute or acuminate
21'Petiole with stalked glands (tubercles); leaf apex obtuse, rounded or slightly acute
22Leaf blades — at least the veins — variously pubescent
22'Leaf blades glabrescent or glabrous on both sides
23Leaf blades pubescent on both sides — at least on the veins — and/or blades scabrous
23'Leaf blades glabrous above, pubescent below — at least on the veins — blades never scabrous
24Leaf blades scabrous, at least above
24'Leaf blades not or hardly scabrous
25Spike distinctly curved
25'Spikes straight, not curved
26Secondary veins originating from the lower 1/3 of the primary vein; veins strongly prominent below; savanna shrub
26'Secondary veins originating throughout or from the lower 1/2 of the primary vein; veins at most prominent below; in forest or secondary vegetation
27Petiole and peduncle 1.5-2 cm long; leaf blade broadly ovate
27'Petioles and peduncles less than 1.5 cm long; leaf blades lanceolate-oblong, elliptic to ovate or rhombic
28Herb or subshrub, 0.15-1.5 m tall; secondary veins originating throughout the primary vein
28'Shrubs or treelets, 2-5 m tall, occasionally with scrambling branches; secondary veins originating from the lower 1/2 of the primary vein
29Prophyll densely pubescent; leaf blade rhombic to subobovate; spike 7-8 cm long; anthers dehiscing laterally; fruits glabrous with some hairs at top
29'Prophyll glabrous; leaf blade elliptic or elliptic-ovate; spike 8-14 cm long; anthers dehiscing transversely apically; fruits hirsute
30Spikes erect
30'Spikes pendent
31Peduncle (filiform) much longer than the spike; spike 1-1.7 cm long
31'Peduncle (not filiform) shorter than the spike; spike 7-20 cm long
32Petioles 0.5-1.5 cm long; spikes 7-8 cm long; leaf blade elliptic, rhombic or subobovate
32'Petioles 1.5-2 cm long; spikes 10-20 cm long; leaf blade broadly ovate
33Leaf blade margin hardly ciliate, base almost equally attached to petiole; floral bracts cucullate, pilose at inner side
33'Leaf blade margin ciliate, base unequally attached to petiole difference 0-0.8 cm; floral bracts not cucullate, marginally fringed
34Stem pilose with 2 mm long hairs; internodes drying finely ridged
34'Stem hirsute with 2.5 mm long hairs; internodes not ridged
35Leaf apex obtuse or acutish
35'Leaf apices acute to long-acuminate
36Leaf blade slightly bullate
36'Leaf blades smooth
37Peduncle (filiform) much longer than the spike; leaf base equally attached to the petiole; secondary veins 4-5(-7) per side, at base originating with 2 pairs
37'Peduncle (stout) as long as or far shorter than the spike; without above given combination of characters
38Scandant or creeping shrub; floral bracts densely marginally fringed; spike conspicuously protandrous, conical in male stage, stamens long exserted
38'Herbs, shrubs or treelets; floral bracts glabrous or variously pubescent or fringed; spikes in male stage cylindrical, stamens short
39Floral bracts cucullate, glabrous or sparsely pilose
39'Floral bracts trigonous or rounded-trigonous, densely marginally fringed
40Low herb or subshrub, sometimes creeping; secondary veins conspicuously anastomosing
40'Shrubs, never creeping; secondary veins not conspicuously anastomosing
41Secondary veins 5-7 per side, originating from the lower 2/3 of the primary vein
41'Secondary veins 7-12 per side, originating throughout the primary vein
42Leaf base subcordate, obtusish, rounded, or cuneate, not lobed
42'Leaf base unequally cordate, with one lobe more or less covering the petiole
43Spike pendent, 1-1.5 cm, in fruit 2.5 cm long; ovary and fruit stylose
43'Spike erect, 3.5-4.5 cm long; ovary and fruit not stylose
44Spikes pendent
44'Spikes erect
45Petiole 2.5-4.5(-7.5) cm long; leaf base strongly asymmetrical; secondary veins widely spaced
45'Petiole 0.2-1.3 cm long; leaf base unequal; secondary veins not widely spaced
46Indument of spreading, to 0.5 mm long, hairs; leaf apex long-acuminate; fruits distinctly separate at maturity, 2.5-4 mm in diam.
46'Indument of short crisp, to 0.2 mm long, hairs; leaf apex short-acuminate or acute; fruits not distinctly separate, to 2 mm in diam.
47Petiole conspicuously winged; leaf blade hirsute below
47'Petioles at most vaginate; leaf blades variously pubescent below
48Leaf blades crisp- to erect-pubescent below
48'Leaf blades appressed pubescent below
49Leaf base acute to cuneate
49'Leaf base obtuse, rounded or subcordate
50Leaf apex acute; fruits glabrous
50'Leaf apex long-acuminate; fruits hirsute
51Secondary veins originating at an angle of 60o and abruptly curving upwards at an angle of 120o, well within the margin
51'Secondary venation not as above
52Petiole 0.3-1 cm long; leaf blade somewhat scabrous and somewhat bullate; peduncle crisp-pubescent
52'Petioles 0.5-6.5 cm long; leaf blade not scabrous, nor bullate; peduncle glabrous
53Stipules about as long as petiole; leaf blade broadly ovate, not conspicuously glandular dotted below
53'Stipules longer than petiole; leaf blade elliptic-ovate, densely glandular-dotted below
54Fruits with 4 apical projections or fruits distinctly winged, ridged or sulcate
54'Fruits without 4 apical projections, not distinctly winged nor ridged nor sulcate
55Fruits with 4 prominent apical projections
55'Fruits distinctly winged, ridged or sulcate
56Infructescence 2.5-4.5 cm long, fruits distinctly sulcate
56'Infructescence 10-12 cm long, fruits ridged or winged.
57Ovaries and fruits distinctly stylose
57'Ovaries and fruits with sessile stigmas, occasionally with inconspicuous short style
58Leaf blade not conspicuously glandular; spike 12-15 cm long
58'Leaf blade densely conspicuously glandular; spike 2-4 cm long
59Climbing or creeping herb; leaf base cordate or obtuse; flowers protandrous or unisexual, stamens long exserted
59'Subshrubs, shrubs or treelets; leaf base acute, obtuse or rounded; flowers bisexual, stamens short, not exserted
60Leaf base unequally attached to the petiole difference 0.5-1 cm
60'Leaf bases less unequal, difference at the petiole less than 0.5 cm
61Floral bracts not marginally fringed, glabrous or at most somewhat pilose
61'Floral bracts densely marginally fringed
62Spike pendent, 1 cm long
62'Spikes erect, to 7 cm long
63Petiole up to 3.2 cm long; leaf blade more than 7 cm wide; secondary veins from lower 2/3 of primary vein
63'Petiole up to 2 cm long; leaf blade less than 6.5 cm wide; secondary veins originating from throughout primary vein
64Leaf blades asymmetrical, i.e. one half wider and more obtuse at least below the middle
64'Leaf blades symmetrical
65Spike erect, to 10 cm long; veins often drying yellowish
65'Spikes pendent, to 6 cm long; veins not drying yellowish
66Petiole 1-2.2 cm long; leaf blade dark glandular-dotted; peduncle 0.5-1.5 cm long
66'Petiole 2.5-4.5(-7.5) cm long; leaf blade not conspicuously glandular-dotted; peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm long
67Leaf base acute, cuneate or obtusish
67'Leaf base truncate, obtuse or rounded
68Secondary veins originating from lower 1/2 to lower 2/3 of primary vein; peduncle up to 3 cm long, spikes 5-9 cm long
68'Secondary veins originating from lower 3/4 or throughout primary vein; peduncle up to 2 cm long, spikes 1-5 cm long
69Leaf blade conspicuously glandular-dotted; secondary veins 4-6 per side
69'Leaf blade not conspicuously glandular-dotted; secondary veins 3-4 per side
70Petiole 1-2 cm long; spike erect; fruits puberulent
70'Petiole 0.4-0.8 cm long; spike pendent; fruits glabrous
71Spike 1-1.7 cm long
71'Spikes 7-11 cm long
72Stipules about as long as petiole; leaf blade broadly ovate, base truncate to cordulate, not conspicuously glandular-dotted below
72'Stipules longer than petiole; leaf blade elliptic-ovate, base obtuse to rounded, densely glandular-dotted below