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<<<Fruiting perianth>Fruits>Endocarp>Texture

1. 006-003-001-001

<<<Fruiting perianth>Seeds>Cotyledons>Shape

equal and flat2
2. 006-004-001-001


3. 003-001-001-001

<<<Pistillate inflorescences>Ovary>Stigma>Stigma number

2 and unequally long, or 14
4. 005-003-001-001

<<Fruiting perianth>Fruits>Endocarp

endocarp ;5
5. 006-003-001

<<Fruiting perianth>Seeds>Cotyledons

cotyledons ,6
6. 006-004-001

<<Fruiting perianth>Seeds>Radicle

radicle long.7
7. 006-004-002


8. 001-001-001


(at least in fruit) with (dye containing) 'glands' embedded in the tissue9
9. 003-001-001

<<Pistillate inflorescences>Ovary>Stigma

stigmas .10
10. 005-003-001

<<Pistillate inflorescences>Tepals>Tepal number

11. 005-002-001

<<Staminate inflorescences>Stamens>Shape

inflexed in the bud and bending outwards suddenly and elastically12
12. 004-002-002

<<Staminate inflorescences>Stamens>Stamen number

13. 004-002-001

<<Staminate inflorescences>Tepals>Tepal number

14. 004-001-001


blade entire (or when juvenile pinnately incised),15
15. 002-002-001


venation pinnate.16
16. 002-002-002

<Fruiting perianth>Colour

17. 006-002

<Fruiting perianth>Fruits

fruits free, slightly drupaceous,18
18. 006-003

<Fruiting perianth>Seeds

seed small, with endosperm,19
19. 006-004

<Fruiting perianth>Texture

20. 006-001


with branchlets transformed into spines or with a spinous tip21
21. 001-001


bracts and/or perianths .22
22. 003-001

<Pistillate inflorescences>Ovary

ovary free,23
23. 005-003

<Pistillate inflorescences>Shape

24. 005-001

<Pistillate inflorescences>Tepals

tepals , almost free;25
25. 005-002

<Staminate inflorescences>Pistillode

pistillode present.26
26. 004-003

<Staminate inflorescences>Stamens

stamens , ;27
27. 004-002

<Staminate inflorescences>Tepals

tepals , almost free;28
28. 004-001


leaves alternate and distichous,29
29. 002-002


30. 002-001


Trees or shrubs, dioecious, with lateral branchlets transformed into spines or with a spinous tip. Stipules lateral, free; leaves alternate and distichous, blade entire (or when juvenile pinnately incised), venation pinnate. Inflorescences in the leaf axils, bracteate, bracts and/or perianths (at least in fruit) with yellow (dye containing) 'glands' embedded in the tissue. Staminate inflorescences spicate; tepals 4, almost free; stamens 4, inflexed in the bud and bending outwards suddenly and elastically; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences globose-capitate; tepals 4, almost free; ovary free, stigmas 2 and unequally long, or 1. Fruiting perianth enlarged, fleshy, green; fruits free, slightly drupaceous, endocarp crustaceous; seed small, with endosperm, cotyledons equal and flat, radicle long.


Guianas present, Neotropics present, tropics, extending to northern temperate regions present
World-wide in the tropics, extending to northern temperate regions; 9 species, 2 of them in the Neotropics, and only one in the Guianas.

Fruiting perianth

Fruiting perianth enlarged, , ;31
31. 006


Trees or shrubs, dioecious, .32
32. 001


Inflorescences in the leaf axils, bracteate,33
33. 003


No material from the Guianas was available for this study. The description is based on a sample from Venezuela.

Pistillate inflorescences

Pistillate inflorescences ;34
34. 005

Staminate inflorescences

Staminate inflorescences spicate;35
35. 004


Stipules , free;36
36. 002


Vessels diffuse, solitary (50%) and in short radial multiples and few irregular clusters of 2-4, round to oval, 8 per mm, diameter 105 μm. Vessel-member length: 280 μm. Perforations simple. Intervascular pits alternate, round, oval and polygonal, 7 μm. Vessel-ray and vessel- parenchyma pits larger, elongated, more irregularly shaped, half- bordered, the borders commonly very reduced. Thin-walled tyloses few.
Rays uniseriate and 2-4-seriate, 9 per mm, up to 175-200 μm high. Homogeneous, composed of procumbent cells.
Parenchyma aliform, with short and long wings, occasionally abaxially unilateral, confluent, sporadically in wavy bands. Strands up to 6 cells. Rhombic crystals abundant in the axial parenchyma, in crystalliferous strands containing up to 13 crystals, one crystal per chamber.
Fibres non-septate, lumen 7-8 μm, walls 2-3 μm. Pits simple, small, confined to the radial walls. Length: 930 μm. F/V ratio: 3.3.