Olacaceae

Primary tabs

Olacaceae

<<<Flowers>Style>Stigma>Segment number

sometimes 3- or 5-partite1
1. 004-007-002-001

<<<Fruits>Seeds>Cotyledons>Cotyledon number

2, 3, or 42
2. 005-004-005-001

<<Flowers>Calyx>Shape

usually cup-shaped, often very shortly lobed or dentate, sometimes enlarged in fruit3
3. 004-002-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Locule number

usually apically 1-locular and basally 2-5-locular4
4. 004-006-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovule number

15
5. 004-006-002

<<Flowers>Petals>Hairs

often hairy inside6
6. 004-003-002

<<Flowers>Petals>Shape

connate, valvate7
7. 004-003-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Series

1-3-seriate8
8. 004-005-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Shape

generally free, rarely fused into a tube (Aptandra)9
9. 004-005-002

<<Flowers>Style>Shape

conical, columnar, or filiform10
10. 004-007-001

<<Flowers>Style>Stigma

with a small, stigma11
11. 004-007-002

<<Fruits>Endocarp>Texture

crustaceous to woody12
12. 005-002-001

<<Fruits>Pericarp>Texture

thin, often fleshy13
13. 005-001-001

<<Fruits>Seeds>Cotyledons

cotyledons .14
14. 005-004-005

<<Fruits>Seeds>Embryo

embryo minute,15
15. 005-004-004

<<Fruits>Seeds>Endosperm

endosperm abundant,16
16. 005-004-003

<<Fruits>Seeds>Seed number

117
17. 005-004-001

<<Fruits>Seeds>Testa

testa, if any, thin,18
18. 005-004-002

<Flowers>Calyx

calyx ;19
19. 004-002

<Flowers>Disk

disc sometimes present, extra- or intrastaminal, consisting of distinct petaloid glands or cup-like, rarely accrescent in fruit;20
20. 004-004

<Flowers>Merosity

3-7-merous21
21. 004-001

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary mostly superior, rarely semi-inferior or inferior, , each cell with usually anatropous ovule hanging down from the free apex of a central placenta,22
22. 004-006

<Flowers>Petals

petals free or , caducous, ;23
23. 004-003

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , , epipetalous or partly also episepalous, sometimes in part staminodial;24
24. 004-005

<Flowers>Style

style, if any, , .25
25. 004-007

<Fruits>Endocarp

a endocarp26
26. 005-002

<Fruits>Pericarp

a pericarp27
27. 005-001

<Fruits>Pseudodrupes

pseudo-drupe (external fleshy layer formed by the accrescent calyx or disc)28
28. 005-003

<Fruits>Seeds

seed ,29
29. 005-004

<Habit>Growth form

erect, rarely scandent30
30. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Position

axillary, rarely from old branches31
31. 003-001

Description

Trees or erect, rarely scandent shrubs or lianas, sometimes semi- or auto-parasitic. Leaves without stipules, petiolate, alternate, entire, pinnately veined, sometimes with lactifers or resinous dots. Inflorescences axillary, rarely from old branches, short-racemose, paniculate, spicate, often fasciculate. Flowers generally bisexual, actinomorphic, cyclic, 3-7-merous; calyx usually cup-shaped, often very shortly lobed or dentate, sometimes enlarged in fruit; petals free or connate, valvate, caducous, often hairy inside; disc sometimes present, extra- or intrastaminal, consisting of distinct petaloid glands or cup-like, rarely accrescent in fruit; stamens 1-3-seriate, generally free, rarely fused into a tube (Aptandra), epipetalous or partly also episepalous, sometimes in part staminodial; ovary mostly superior, rarely semi-inferior or inferior, usually apically 1-locular and basally 2-5-locular, each cell with 1 usually anatropous ovule hanging down from the free apex of a central placenta, style, if any, conical, columnar, or filiform, with a small, sometimes 3- or 5-partite stigma. Fruit a drupe with a thin, often fleshy pericarp, and a crustaceous to woody endocarp, or a pseudo-drupe (external fleshy layer formed by the accrescent calyx or disc); seed 1, testa, if any, thin, endosperm abundant, embryo minute, cotyledons 2, 3, or 4.

Distribution

Guianas present, Neotropics present, tropics present
About 180 species in 28 genera, in the tropics; in the neotropics ca. 87 species in 14 genera; in the Guianas 17 species in 10 genera.

Explanatory note.


The generic descriptions given below are based on many more species than the ones occuring in the Guianas. It is therefore possible that the full range in, for instance, quantitative features such as vessel frequency, ves- sel diameter and element length is not covered by the species in the Guianas.

FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS


Vessels diffuse or in a faint oblique pattern, solitary or in radial multiples. Perforations scalariform or simple, intervascular pits scalariform to alternate, large to small, vessel-ray and vessel-parenchyma pits of two types: half- bordered diffuse to alternate, similar in shape and size to intervascu- lar pits, together with large and simple pits; or exclusively large and simple.
Vascular tracheids absent, or scarce to frequent, associated with vessel multiples, sometimes intergrading with narrow vessel elements.
Rays of Kribs' heterogeneous type I, heterogeneous type II to III, hetero- geneous type III to homogeneous, or homogeneous, predominantly 1-3 cells wide. Perforated ray cells present in some genera, not abundant. Parenchyma scarce to abundant, predominantly apotracheal, diffuse or in small aggregates, partly scanty paratracheal; in Schoepfia aliform to confluent.
Ground tissue composed of fibre-uacheids with bordered pits in both tangential and radial walls or libriform fibres with minutely bordered pits mainly confined to the radial walls.
Silica bodies fairly common in ray cells of the genera Dulacia and Ptychopetalum, rarely noted in axial parenchyma cells, predominantly one per cell, occasionally two, surface granular, diameter 10-30 μm.
Crystals solitary rhomboidal, scanty to abundant in chambered or nonchambered ray- or axial parenchyma cells, sometimes absent.

Flowers

Flowers generally bisexual, actinomorphic, cyclic, ;32
32. 004

Fruits

Fruit a drupe with , and , or a ;33
33. 005

GENERIC DESCRIPTIONS


Habit

Trees or shrubs or lianas, sometimes semi- or auto-parasitic.34
34. 001

IDENTIFICATION


The wood anatomy of the Olacaceae ranges from primitive to specialized. There is no common wood anatomical characteristic for the whole family. One typical feature, not often found outside the Olacaceae, is the vessel- parenchyma pitting, which is of two types in about 60 % of the genera: half-bordered scattered to alternate, similar in shape and size to intervascular pits, and large and simple, solitary or forming a reticulate pattern. In the remaining genera vessel-parenchyma pits are all large and simple. Other characters common to the majority of Olacaceae are the diffuse to diffuse-in-aggregates apotracheal parenchyma and the narrow heteroge- neous rays.
With the wide range of character-states within the family and the limited infra-generic variation, it is possible to separate most genera entirely on wood anatomical characters. For the Guianan genera a key is presented below. TYpe of ground tissue fibres, ray type and presence or absence of vascular tracheids are important characters in this key. These characters require a minute observation. Especially the tangential wall pits in very thick-walled fibre-tracheids are sometimes inconspicuous in tangential sections and may have to be identified at fairly high magnification in transverse sections. Vascular tracheids in Olacaceae are usually associated with the vessels and may intergrade with narrow vessel members. Their abundance may vary considerably in those genera which possess them.
KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF GUIANAN GENERAPerforations scalariform in oblique end-walls.2Perforations simple in slightly oblique to transverse end-walls.3Intervascular pits alternate.MinquartiaIntervascular pits scalariform to opposite.MabureaHeisteria (ex. H. scandens)Ground tissue composed of fibre-tracheids.4Ground tissue composed of libriform fibres.7Rays heterogeneous I.Heisteria scandensRays heterogeneous II to Ill.5Vessels predominantly in radial multiples.AptandraVessels predominantly solitary.6Vascular tracheids absent, silica bodies absent.XimeniaVascular tracheids present, silica bodies present.DulaciaAxial parenchyma aliform-confluent.SchoepfiaAxial parenchyma diffuse.8Rays heterogeneous III to homogeneous.CathedraRays heterogeneous II to III.9Silica bodies present.PtychopetalumSilica bodies absent.Chaunochiton

Individuals Association

Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3984 BAFOG 7363 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 11597 Boom, B. & S. Mori 2413 Guyana, Myers, J.G. 5927 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & J. 1391 Sagot, P. s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3798 Vieillescazes, A. 524 Feuillet, C. et al. 10353 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 2036B BAFOG 7577 Guyana, Anderson, CW. 444 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6332 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4843 Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 444 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 444 A Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4283 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rich. 1345 Suriname, L.B.B. 9438 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 23979 Suriname, B.W. 90 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. s.n. Guyana, Persaud, R. 8 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3431 Lescure, J.P. 883 Suriname, Krukoff, B.A. 12339 Guyana, Persaud, A.C. 58 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 1062 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55193 Sagot, P. 31 Suriname, B.W. 769 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2063 BAFOG 188 Suriname, Pulle, A. Ser. II, 552 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5804 Boom, B. & S. Mori 1686 Suriname, Hugh-Jones, D.W. 59 BAFOG 7582 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5289 Suriname, B.W. 2340 Suriname, Mori, S. et al. 8469 Sabatier, D. & Prevost, M.F. 1575 Suriname, Kegel, H.A.H. 976 Barrier, S. 4869 Sastre, C. et al. 1631 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 8130 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3492 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6462 Wachenheim, H. 376 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 390 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-3966 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 11686 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2699 Deward, G. 20 Suriname, B.B.S. 57 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 151 Granville, J.J. de, et al. T-1202 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-1795 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. 11639 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4836 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 4007 Benoist, R. 927 Suriname, B.W. 1355 Martin, J. s.n. Moretti, C. 504 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2818 Guyana, Persaud, R. 1629 Benoist, R. 1101 Suriname, B.B.S. 13a Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4831 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 2943 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., A.R.A. Gorts-van Rijn et al. 153 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3761 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 4531 Feuillet, C. 1069 Suriname, Fairchild, D. s.n. Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24161 Melinon, M. 185 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4109 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10523 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1912 Hladik, A. 3090 Grenand, P. 2579 Suriname, B.B.S. 217 Guyana, Gleason, A.H. 178 Richard, L.C. s.n. Irwin, H.S. et al. 47571 Wachenheim, H. 173 Loubry, D. 1619 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7608 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5085 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55989 Riera, B. 838 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2284 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 512 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 138 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3773 Guyana, Polak, M., P.J.M. Maas et al. 512 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 464 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 395 Benoist, R. 717 Deward, G. 55 Suriname, B.W. 2056 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5255 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6646 Suriname, Sauvin, M. 233 Sabatier, D. 3506 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3546 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-895 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5455 BAFOG 7631 Feuillet, C. 488 Suriname, B.W. 6933 Hoff, M. et al. 6410 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 2227 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55456 Melinon, M. 81 Guyana, Beddington 40 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 40742 Suriname, Wullschlagel, H.R. 781 Suriname, Splitberger, F.L. 740 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 773 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 328 Aubreville, A. 274 Loubry, D. 145 Suriname, B.W. 5964 Granville, J.J. de, et al. T-1188 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1058 Suriname, Sauvin, M. 514 Cremers, G. 6320 Sastre, C. et al. 8060 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6050 Feuillet, C. 4309 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-3116 Suriname, B.W. 2738 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 6092 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5122 Benoist, R. 1044 Suriname, B.W. 3928 Jacquemin, H. 2630 Suriname, Guppy, N. et al. s.n. Prevost, M.F. 1751 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6321 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. et al. 8053 Marshall, N. & J. Rombold 224 Broadway, W.E. 174 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Suriname, B.B.S. 92 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 2202 Benoist, R. 1109 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-610 Perrottet, G.S. 190 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 235 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5001 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 194 Deward, G. 226 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3982 Guyana, Beccari, N. 76 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & J. 198 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 57654 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 1662 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 953 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2524 Melinon, M. 219 Suriname, B.W. 4250 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5103 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1837 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3529 Cremers, G. 5954 Sastre, C. et al. 1371 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 337 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2576 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6182 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2224 Wachenheim, H. 515 Suriname, B.W. 1445 Suriname, Stahel, G. 241 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. et al. 7685 Sabatier, D. & Prevost, M.F. 2794 Prevost, M.F. & Sabatier, D. 2658 Suriname, Cowan, R.S. & J.C. Lindeman 39035 Suriname, B.W. 2413 Wachenheim, H. 214 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 1285 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2756 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 7138 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3573 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. 11726 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3594 Benoist, R. 785 Grenand, P. 893 Grenand, P. 1045 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 8033 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 54846 Suriname, L.B.B. 14642 Guyana, Watson, A.G. 13 Guyana, Meyer, G.FW. 114 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 3788 Hahn, W.J. et al. 3622 Sagot, P. 999 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2709 Suriname, Daniels, A.G. & F.P. Jonkers 1091 Sastre, C. et al. 3432 Jacquemin, H. 2441 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 6017 Feuillet, C. et al. 9994 Cremers, G. 7250 Suriname, Boon, E. 1212 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 51 BAFOG 7674 Guyana, Beddington 18 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 348 Deward, G. 18 Deward, G. 211 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. T-477 Sastre, C. et al. 3973 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2274 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1080 Suriname, B.W. 4813 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6215 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 3998 Bitaillon, C. 92 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1215 Riera, B. 966 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2097 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 288 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3482 Moretti, C. 263 Cremers, G. 5421 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2168 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wood herb. 62 Suriname, B.W. 5278 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Sastre, C. et al. 5701 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.C. de Roan 739 Wachenheim, H. 202 Sabatier, D. 64 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3378a Suriname, Sastre, C. et al. 1477 Melinon, M. 529 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-3961 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4804 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4448 Barrier, S. 5138 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 284 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 6777 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-3426 Cremers, G. 7320 Suriname, L.B.B. 16028 Halle, F. 1085 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 2388 Suriname, B.W. 4314 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 1118 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-1870 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2396 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2415 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2245 BAFOG 1295 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5183 Suriname, B.W. 1367 Sabatier, D. & Prevost, M.F. 1556 Suriname, B.W. 6828 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55863 Sastre, C. et al. 6461 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4670 Suriname, Daniels, A.G. & F.P. Jonkers 1305 Prevost, M.F. & Sabatier, D. 2807 Suriname, Focke, H.C. 131 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4584 Sastre, C. et al. 1392 Guyana, Linder, D.H. 31 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. T-913 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2638 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10619 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., A.R.A. Gorts-van Rijn et al. 431 Leblond, J.B. et al. s.n. Suriname, Pulle, A. Ser. I, 405 Barrier, S. 3940 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2969 Wachenheim, H. 59 Suriname, B.W. 1846 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rich. 238 Guyana, Myers, J.G. 5924 Guyana, Persaud, C.A. Suriname, L.B.B. 15147 Suriname, B.W. 2268 Suriname, B.W. 734 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-4296 Guyana, Polak, M., P.J.M. Maas et al. 510 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1907 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. T-281 Sabatier, D. & Prevost, M.F. 2230 Jacquemin, H. 2165 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 2579 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4277 Guyana, Pinkus, A.S. 248 Guyana, Gleason, A.H. 545 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5185 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. BAFOG 1294 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 419 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2702 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., A.L. Stoffers et al. 770 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5153 Mori, S. et al. 18137 Suriname, Coll. ind. 116 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24859 Loubry, D. 1350 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5423 Guyana, Altson, R.A. 420 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 921 Melinon, M. 273 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 6313 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5359 Suriname, B.W. 4346 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 32388 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. et al. 8017 Lescure, J.P. 172 Aubreville, A. 249 Sauvain, M. 650 Jacquemin, H. 1476 Suriname, Soeprato 49A Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55600 Melinon, M. 24 Wachenheim, H. 315 Vieillescazes, A. 422 Sabatier, D. 551 Martin, J. s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. 2090 Sastre, C. et al. 1340 Leblond, J.B. et al. s.n. Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 7927 Jacquemin, H. 1443 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2914 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1142 Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 380 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 2925 Deward, G. 179 Suriname, B.W. 3253 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 708 Feuillet, C. et al. 10182 Feuillet, C. 3803 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-599 Suriname, Anderson, A. s.n. Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 4722 Guyana, Pennington, R.T. et al. 370 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 23389 Maguire, B. et al. 47098 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 825 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 4448 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 2293 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5215 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 22980 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24618 BAFOG 7454 Guyana, Steege, H. ter et al. 233 Patris, J.B. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 3927 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-881 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 54110 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2198 Martin, J. s.n. Suriname, Anderson, A. s.n. Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2913 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2862 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 4506 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6673 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 225 Suriname, L.B.B. 16263 Suriname, Pulle, A. Ser. I, 24 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10307 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3603 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1062 Guyana, Polak, M., P.J.M. Maas et al. 8 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5385 Wachenheim, H. 232 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5590 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2726 Guyana, Beccari, N. 74 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 40727 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3378 Suriname, B.W. 4164 Foresta, H. de 655 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2532 Fleury, N.C. 323 Suriname, B.W. 5977 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 223 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5667 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 8630 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 231 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 1212 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1718 Leprieur, F.R. s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. 11066 Richard, L.C. s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. 310 Guyana, Gleason, A.H. 735 Schnell, R. 11715 Suriname, Kegel, H.A.H. 270 Riera, B. 24 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3870 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 407 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5924 Suriname, B.W. 2764 Wachenheim, H. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 713 Prevost, M.F. 493 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 247 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 7646 Patris, J.B. s.n. Benoist, R. 1068 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5865 Suriname, L.B.B. 12465 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 444 B Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 847 Grenand, P. 363 Suriname, Weigelt, C. s.n. (a. 1827) Sagot, P. s.n. Barrier, S. 5007 Suriname, Stahel, G. 297 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6315 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 3138 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 444 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4679 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. s.n. Riera, B. 255 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 865 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. s.n. Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2944 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3871 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 2443 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4871 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. T-439 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2356 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 2295 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 354 Sastre, C. et al. 4013 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1184 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-543 Moretti, C. 550 Broadway, W.E. 478 Aubreville, A. 250 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1141 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5580 Suriname, Pulle, A. Ser. II, 301 Guyana, Anderson, CW. 578 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-1749 Guyana, Lang, H. et al. 178 Feuillet, C. 622 Suriname, B.W. 6451 Forget 200 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5483 Guyana, Abraham, A.A. 195 Jacquemin, H. 2586 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1019 BAFOG 7577 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1491 Suriname, B.W. 4726 Wachenheim, H. 134 Melinon, M. 220 Sastre, C. et al. 1339 Guyana, Tillett, S.S. et al. 43976 Hoff, M. et al. 6429 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-823 Mori, S. et al. 17979 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 4400 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 23487 Melinon, M. 83 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. BAFOG 7901 Guyana, Appun, C.F. 270 Boom, B. & S. Mori 1606 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 5872 Sastre, C. et al. 333 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 22914 Loubry, D. 689 Loubry, D. 1400 Wachenheim, H. 189 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 3997 Boom, B. & S. Mori 2192 Halle, F. 1082 Grenand, P. 1885 Irwin, H.S. et al. 47573 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 9418 Feuillet, C. 2323 Bar s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7714 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. et al. 7360 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 3 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4857 Guyana, Lindeman, J.C. 6689 Richard, L.C. s.n. Suriname, B.W. 2497 Guyana, Jul 1992, Steege, H. ter et al. s.n. Wachenheim, H. 151 Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Guyana, Gleason, A.H. 355 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 1286 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 190 Larpin 918 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5669 BAFOG 7454 Martin, J. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 3074 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-3152 Suriname, Coll. ind. 207 Barrier, S. 3844 Riera, B. 58 Melinon, M. 736 Grenand, P. 1083 Barrier, S. 5174 Suriname, Florschiitz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2636 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4813 Suriname, B.W. 1398 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rob. II 759 Guyana, Persaud, A.C. 127 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3392 Barrier, S. 4295 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2219 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 65 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. B-2161 Suriname, L.B.B. 12352 Suriname, Stahel, G. 1 Guyana, Forestry Dept. British Guiana FD 5013 Suriname, B.W. 5534 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., A.L. Stoffers et al. 737 BAFOG 7363 Suriname, B.W. 5261 Guyana, Pennington, R.T. et al. 441 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 847 Sabatier, D. & Prevost, M.F. 2953 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6449 Suriname, Pulle, A. 569 BAFOG 7881 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24056 Suriname, Stahel, G. 269 Veyret, Y. et al. 1564 Suriname, B.W. 4977 Hoff, M. et al. 6346 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wilh. Exp. 38 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. 1437 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2133 Fleury, N.C. 573 Suriname, Focke, H.C. 242 Villiers, J.F. & C. Feuillet 2011 Riera, B. 67 Suriname, B.W. 23 Leprieur, F.R. s.n. Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 7125 Sagot, P. 1198 Oldeman, R.A.A. et al. 1125 Feuillet, C. 379 Suriname, Boon, E. 1124 Suriname, B.W. 5844 Deward, G. 200 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 480

Inflorescences

Inflorescences , short-racemose, paniculate, spicate, often fasciculate.35
35. 003

Leaves

Leaves without stipules, petiolate, alternate, entire, pinnately veined, sometimes with lactifers or resinous dots.36
36. 002

Timber properties

Taxa of the Olacaceae are never abundant in the forest of the Guianas. Most species are small to medium sized trees, occasionally lianas. Minquartia guianensis is a canopy tree, and the only taxon of which the timber has commercial value beyond the region.
Aptandra
TreeSmall
Description of the woodYellow throughout. Texture medium. Grain straight. Luster medium.
WeightApprox. 800 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working propertiesNot difficult to work, finishes smoothly.
DurabilityLow.
UsesSuitable for about the same purposes as e.g. Acer (Maple).
Cathedra
TreeTree up to 15 m.
Description of the woodHeartwood and sapwood not distinguishable, light brown. Texture fine. Grain straight to irregular. Luster low.
WeightSpecific gravity 900-1000 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working porpertiesRather difficult to saw, but can be finished very smoothly.
UsesHeavy constructions.
Chaunochiton
TreeUnbuttressed, cylindrical, up to 45 cm india- meter (usually 28-35 cm). Tree height up to 35 m, the bole up to 20m.
Description of the woodYellowish throughout. Texture fine. Grain straight. Luster medium. Fresh timber has a strong odor of hydrocyanic acid, disappearing during the drying process.
WeightSpecific gravity 580-600 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working porpertiesVery easily worked.
DurabilityLow.
UsesSuitable for tool handles, but not used locally.
Trade namesHiwardan (Guyana); Patakoewana (Suriname).
Dulacia
TreeShrubs or small trees (up to 10-30 m).
Description of the woodColour yellow brown, Texture medium to fine. Grain straight.
WeightSpecific gravity 600-650 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Heisteria
TreeSmall tree or liana.
Description of the woodHeartwood light brown to reddish or yellowish brown. Texture fine. Grain straight. Luster medium.
WeightSpecific gravity 800-965 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working propertiesGood.
DurabilityFairly high.
Trade namesMakarasaki, Marihibona (Guyana).
Maburea
TreeMedium to large tree (up to 25 m).
Description of the woodHeartwood undistinguishable from sapwood, yellowish. Texture fine. Grain straight. Lustrous.
WeightSpecific gravity ca. 950 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Minquartia
TreeUnbutressed, basally swollen tree, up to 35-50(80) cm in diameter, and 20-25 m high. Stem straight, angular, with very deep, oblong growth holes, sometimes throughout the ent- ire width of the stem.
Description of the woodHeartwood dark brown to greyish brown, sapwood lighter and more greyish, often with streaks. Texture fine. Grain interlocked. Luster high.
WeightSpecific gravity 850-1100 kg per cubic metre (12%).
ShrinkageMedium.
Seasoning propertiesQuick drying may cause checking.
Working propertiesDifficult to work. Takes a good finish.
DurabilityHigh. Resistant to termites, not to teredos.
UsesRailroad sleepers, posts, sticks, poles for fences and houses, turnery and inlay. All purpo- ses requiring great strength and resistance to decay. Few woods equal its reputation for durability in contact with the ground.
SupplyScarce.
Trade namesManwood, Black Manwood, Jewalidanni, Mincoa, Arataweri, Wanama, Yuwartu (Guyana); Aratta, Aratta hoedoe, Alata-oedoe, Konthout, Baggie-baggie, Makka, Kontoe hoedoe, Wanania, Tomopio, Aratewerie (Suriname); Mincouoert, Minquart, Bois agouti, Bois incoruptible, Bagui-bagui, Maka (Fr. Guiana).
Ptychopetalum
TreeSlender trees.
Description of the woodColour brownish yellow. Texture medium to fine. Grain straight. Luster medium.
WeightSpecific gravity 870-100 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working propertiesNot difficult to work, taking a smooth finish. Durability Poorly resistant to decay.
Trade namesBois bande (Fr. Guiana).
Schoepfia
TreeShrub or small tree.
Description of the woodBrownish yellow or pale olive. Texture fine. Grain straight to irregular.
Working propertiesVery easy to work, taking a lustrous natural polish.
Ximenia
TreeSavanna fringing small tree or shrub.
Description of the woodHeartwood reddish yellow, rather sharply demarcated from the lighter sapwood. Texture fine. Grain straight to irregular. Luster fairly, high. The wood may have a mild fragrant scent.
WeightSpecific gravity 838-930 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Working propertiesNot difficult to work, taking a high natural polish.
DurabilityRather high.
UsesThe wood has been used to a limited extent as a substitute for Sandalwood.
Trade namesWiri, Wild lime, Muri lime (Guyana).