Panopsis

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Panopsis

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<<<Flowers>Anthers>Anthers>Shape

oblong to elliptic to widely ovate1
1. 005-002-001-001

<<<Flowers>Glands>Lobes>Shape

acute to apiculate2
2. 005-003-004-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Ovule number

23
3. 005-004-005-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Position

pendulous4
4. 005-004-005-002

<<<Leaves>Blade>Margins>Hairs

glabrescent, persistent for longer beneath, and above along midvein, less frequently remaining densely pubescent beneath5
5. 002-002-001-001

<<Flowers>Anthers>Anthers

anthers ,6
6. 005-002-001

<<Flowers>Anthers>Connective

connective apiculate;7
7. 005-002-002

<<Flowers>Glands>Lobe number

4-lobed8
8. 005-003-003

<<Flowers>Glands>Lobes

lobes , eventually shrinking and fragmenting;9
9. 005-003-004

<<Flowers>Glands>Shape

tubular10
10. 005-003-001

<<Flowers>Glands>Texture

thin, membranous11
11. 005-003-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Colour

yellow-orange to orange12
12. 005-004-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Hairs

villous outside, glabrous within13
13. 005-004-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules

ovules , collateral, orthotropous, .14
14. 005-004-005

<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma

stigma absent, a specialised stigmatic surface developing at times,15
15. 005-004-004

<<Flowers>Ovary>Style

style straight-sided to clavate, longitudinally ridged,16
16. 005-004-003

<<Flowers>Tepals>Growth form

recurved17
17. 005-001-001

<<Flowers>Tepals>Hairs

pubescent to pilose outside, glabrous within18
18. 005-001-002

<<Fruits>Option 1>Colour

semi-shiny to dull19
19. 006-002-003

<<Fruits>Option 1>Hairs

glabrescent20
20. 006-002-004

<<Fruits>Option 1>Shape

globose with rounded to varyingly mucronate apex21
21. 006-002-001

<<Fruits>Option 1>Texture

surface smooth or scaly22
22. 006-002-002

<<Fruits>Option 2>Hairs

with indument23
23. 006-003-003

<<Fruits>Option 2>Shape

fusiform, strongly sutured24
24. 006-003-001

<<Fruits>Option 2>Texture

corrugate25
25. 006-003-002

<<Fruits>Pericarp>Inner mesocarp

thin, fleshy inner mesocarp26
26. 006-004-003

<<Fruits>Pericarp>Mid mesocarp

woody, vascularized mid mesocarp27
27. 006-004-002

<<Fruits>Pericarp>Outer mesocarp

fleshy, granular outer mesocarp28
28. 006-004-001

<<Fruits>Seeds>Shape

rounded, not winged (laterally compressed in P. rubescens)29
29. 006-006-001

<<Inflorescences>Bracts>Hairs

pubescent on outside, glabrous within30
30. 003-003-001

<<Inflorescences>Pedicels>Hairs

pubescent to pilose31
31. 003-006-001

<<Leaves>Blade>Margins

margin not markedly revolute, indument usually present when young, ;32
32. 002-002-001

<<Leaves>Veins>Midveins

midvein raised, plane or more frequently sunken above, prominent and longitudinally ridged beneath, higher order venation reticulate.33
33. 002-003-001

<Flowers>Anthers

free parts of filaments ribbon-like, adnate to tepals below half-way, or completely free,34
34. 005-002

<Flowers>Glands

hypogynous gland , , ,35
35. 005-003

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary stipitate, ,36
36. 005-004

<Flowers>Tepals

tepals strongly , ;37
37. 005-001

<Fruits>Option 1

either , , ,38
38. 006-002

<Fruits>Option 2

or , ,39
39. 006-003

<Fruits>Pericarp

pericarp usually with , , and ;40
40. 006-004

<Fruits>Seed coat

seed coat thin, often fused to pericarp;41
41. 006-005

<Fruits>Seed number

1-seeded42
42. 006-001

<Fruits>Seeds

seed large, fleshy, .43
43. 006-006

<Habit>Height

to 25(-40) m tall44
44. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Bracts

common bracts subtending flower pairs, caducous, small, ligulate, ;45
45. 003-003

<Inflorescences>Flowers

flowers paired, clustered at short intervals along rhachis (sometimes distinctly whorled) or randomly spread along racemes and branches;46
46. 003-005

<Inflorescences>Inflorescences

inflorescences subtended by mature leaves or by leaves considerably smaller in size;47
47. 003-004

<Inflorescences>Lateral inflorescences

lateral inflorescences at times further branched;48
48. 003-002

<Inflorescences>Pedicels

pedicels .49
49. 003-006

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal, sometimes lateral or subterminal50
50. 003-001

<Leaves>Blade

blades at base sometimes descending petiole on either side,51
51. 002-002

<Leaves>Leaf number per verticel

452
52. 002-001

<Leaves>Veins

venation conspicuous to obscure, plane to slightly raised above, more conspicuous and prominent beneath, fractiflexed brochidodromous, frequently eucamptodromous at base, marginal vein weak, derived from ascending lateral veins,53
53. 002-003

Description

Shrubs or trees to 25(-40) m tall. Leaves entire, simple, sessile to petiolate, arranged in verticels of 4, offset verticels, decussate, subopposite-decussate or spiral; blades at base sometimes descending petiole on either side, margin not markedly revolute, indument usually present when young, glabrescent, persistent for longer beneath, and above along midvein, less frequently remaining densely pubescent beneath; venation conspicuous to obscure, plane to slightly raised above, more conspicuous and prominent beneath, fractiflexed brochidodromous, frequently eucamptodromous at base, marginal vein weak, derived from ascending lateral veins, midvein raised, plane or more frequently sunken above, prominent and longitudinally ridged beneath, higher order venation reticulate. Inflorescences usually terminal, sometimes lateral or subterminal, unbranched and raceme-like, or branched and panicle-like, bearing lateral inflorescences subtended by leaves which are reduced in size to ligulate and bract-like structures on uppermost inflorescences; lateral inflorescences at times further branched; common bracts subtending flower pairs, caducous, small, ligulate, pubescent on outside, glabrous within; inflorescences subtended by mature leaves or by leaves considerably smaller in size; flowers paired, clustered at short intervals along rhachis (sometimes distinctly whorled) or randomly spread along racemes and branches; pedicels pubescent to pilose. Flower buds elongate or elongate-pyriform, opening apically by elongation of the style. Flowers essentially actinomorphic to slightly zygomorphic, tepals strongly recurved, pubescent to pilose outside, glabrous within; free parts of filaments ribbon-like, adnate to tepals below half-way, or completely free, anthers oblong to elliptic to widely ovate, connective apiculate; hypogynous gland tubular, thin, membranous, 4-lobed, lobes acute to apiculate, eventually shrinking and fragmenting; ovary stipitate, yellow-orange to orangevillous outside, glabrous within, style straight-sided to clavate, longitudinally ridged, stigma absent, a specialised stigmatic surface developing at times, ovules 2, collateral, orthotropous, pendulous. Fruit 1-seeded, either globose with rounded to varyingly mucronate apex, surface smooth or scaly, semi-shiny to dull, glabrescent, or fusiform, strongly sutured, corrugate, with indument; pericarp usually with fleshy, granular outer mesocarp, woody, vascularized mid mesocarp, and thin, fleshy inner mesocarp; seed coat thin, often fused to pericarp; seed large, fleshy, rounded, not winged (laterally compressed in P. rubescens).

Distribution

Amazonia present, Guianas present, New World present, SE Brazil present, Southern America: Costa Rica (Costa Rica present); Panamá (Panamá present), along the entire Andean chain as far south as Bolivia present
Widespread genus of the New World, from Costa Rica and Panama, along the entire Andean chain as far south as Bolivia, and throughout Amazonia, with 1 isolated species in SE Brazil; 2 of the 24 species occur in the Guianas.

Etymology

The name Panopsis is derived from the Greek signifying the way in which the petals are "recurved in every way".

Flower buds

Flower buds elongate or elongate-pyriform, opening apically by elongation of the style.54
54. 004

Flowers

Flowers essentially actinomorphic to slightly zygomorphic,55
55. 005

Fruits

Fruit , , ;56
56. 006

Habit

Shrubs or trees .57
57. 001

Individuals Association

Krukoff 7236 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs et al. 1357 Suriname, Lanjouw & Lindeman 2872 BAFOG 1322 Suriname, Lindeman 6413 Suriname, Stahel 291 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 3040

Inflorescences

Inflorescences usually , unbranched and raceme-like, or branched and panicle-like, bearing lateral inflorescences subtended by leaves which are reduced in size to ligulate and bract-like structures on uppermost inflorescences;58
58. 003

Leaves

Leaves entire, simple, sessile to petiolate, arranged in verticels of , offset verticels, decussate, subopposite-decussate or spiral;59
59. 002

Wood

Growth rings indistinct or absent.
Vessels diffuse, solitary, paired or in groups of 3-4, rarely more, which can be either radially or tangentially arranged and occasionally appear as tangential bands in P. rubescens; 2-13 (6) per mm2, circular 35-325 (143) μm wide. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate and bordered. Vessel-ray pits alternate and bordered.
Rays uniseriate and multseriate (4-20 cells wide), 1-3 per mm. Uniseriate rays composed of upright or square to upright cells and 2-20 cells in height. Multiseriate rays composed of predominantly procumbent body cells and 1-4(-6) rows of square to upright marginal cells. Multiseriate rays 62-788 (427) μm, sometimes >1 mm, wide and 29 μm to >1 mm in height, sometimes appearing as an aggregate, dissected by axial elements. Amorphous (non crystalline) deposits can be present in the multiseriate rays along with occasional silica bodies.
Axial parenchyma present in narrow tangential bands 1-2(3) cells wide and 3-5 per mm; with 2 to many cells per strand. Ground tissue of non septate fibres with thin to thick walls and rare simple to minutely bordered pits on the radial walls.
Vessel diameter is recorded as being up to 800 μm in the InsideWood database and narrower by Détienne & Jacquet (1983). Panopsis is described as having bordered pits on the fibres (Détienne & Jacquet 1983). Fibre pits are also noted on tangential walls equal in abundance to those on the radial walls (Mennega 1966).