Combretum cacoucia

Primary tabs

Combretum cacoucia

Content

<<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex>Shape

acute1
1. 004-005-004-001

<<<Flowers>Disk>Free portion>Length

ca. 1.5-2 mm long2
2. 004-008-003-001

3-7 mm long3
3. 004-003-002-001

<<<Flowers>Petals>Apex>Hairs

pubescent on both surfaces4
4. 004-006-004-002

<<<Flowers>Petals>Apex>Shape

acute to subacute5
5. 004-006-004-001

<<<Flowers>Petals>Shape>Dimensions

6-16.4 x 4-5.8 mm6
6. 004-006-003-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments>Length

19.5-29.5 mm long7
7. 004-007-002-001

<<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Hairs>Glands

very sparse to frequent stalked glands8
8. 004-004-003-001

<<<Fruits>Base>Pseudostipe>Length

ca. 1-3 cm long9
9. 005-005-002-001

<<<Fruits>Base>Ridges>Ridge number

510
10. 005-005-003-001

<<<Leaves>Veins>Secondary veins>Secondary vein pair number

5-9 pairs11
11. 002-006-001-001

<<<Stalked glands>Stalks>Series>Length in number of cells

6-14 cells long12
12. 006-002-001-001

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex

apex ;13
13. 004-005-004

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Growth form

erect14
14. 004-005-001

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Length

2.5-6 mm long15
15. 004-005-003

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Shape

triangular to narrowly so16
16. 004-005-002

<<Flowers>Disk>Free portion

free portion17
17. 004-008-003

<<Flowers>Disk>Hairs

densely pubescent at margin18
18. 004-008-002

<<Flowers>Disk>Texture

thick19
19. 004-008-001

<<Flowers>Lower hypanthium>Hairs

densely pubescent20
20. 004-003-004

<<Flowers>Lower hypanthium>Length

6-14 mm long21
21. 004-003-001

pedicel-like region22
22. 004-003-002

<<Flowers>Lower hypanthium>Shape

narrowed to neck23
23. 004-003-003

<<Flowers>Ovules>Ovule number

3-424
24. 004-010-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Apex

apex , ;25
25. 004-006-004

<<Flowers>Petals>Growth form

erect26
26. 004-006-002

<<Flowers>Petals>Petal number

527
27. 004-006-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Shape

obovate to narrowly so or elliptic to broadly so, , at anthesis slightly to far exserted28
28. 004-006-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments ;29
29. 004-007-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

1030
30. 004-007-001

<<Flowers>Style>Hairs

glabrous or pubescent basally31
31. 004-009-002

<<Flowers>Style>Length

26.5-44.5 mm long32
32. 004-009-001

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Dimensions

10-19 x 3.5-15 mm33
33. 004-004-002

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Hairs

pubescent to densely so outside, , pubescent to densely so inside34
34. 004-004-003

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Shape

deeply curved-cupuliform to -infundibuliform35
35. 004-004-001

<<Fruits>Apex>Shape

gradually tapered to narrowly rounded to obtuse36
36. 005-004-001

<<Fruits>Base>Pseudostipe

pseudostipe of37
37. 005-005-002

<<Fruits>Base>Ridges

ridges , strong but fairly narrow and abruptly edged38
38. 005-005-003

<<Fruits>Base>Shape

gradually and narrowly tapered39
39. 005-005-001

<<Inflorescences>Bracts>Dimensions

up to 4.5 x 1.5 cm at lower nodes40
40. 003-004-001

<<Inflorescences>Stems>Hairs

densely fulvous-pubescent to -tomentose41
41. 003-003-002

<<Inflorescences>Stems>Rachises

rhachis very stout42
42. 003-003-001

<<Leaves>Apex>Shape

acuminate43
43. 002-004-001

<<Leaves>Base>Hairs

sparsely to very sparsely pubescent but sometimes moderately so on veins especially below44
44. 002-005-002

<<Leaves>Base>Shape

rounded to shallowly cordate45
45. 002-005-001

<<Leaves>Petiole>Hairs

pubescent to densely so46
46. 002-007-002

<<Leaves>Petiole>Length

0.3-0.8 cm long47
47. 002-007-001

<<Leaves>Veins>Secondary veins

secondary veins ;48
48. 002-006-001

<<Stalked glands>Head>Dimensions

25-35 x 20-25 µm49
49. 006-003-002

<<Stalked glands>Head>Shape

obovoid50
50. 006-003-001

<<Stalked glands>Stalks>Series

uniseriate,51
51. 006-002-001

<<Wood>Liana habit>Diameter

to 10 cm diam.52
52. 001-001-002

<<Wood>Liana habit>Length

to 20 m53
53. 001-001-001

<<Wood>Shrub habit>Height

to 2.5 m54
54. 001-002-001

<<Wood>Tree habit>Height

to 4 m55
55. 001-003-001

<Flowers>Calyx lobes

calyx lobes , , ,56
56. 004-005

<Flowers>Disk

disk , closely applied to style base, , ;57
57. 004-008

<Flowers>Length

18-33 mm long58
58. 004-002

<Flowers>Lower hypanthium

lower hypanthium , , , , stalked glands very sparse to frequent,59
59. 004-003

<Flowers>Merosity

5-merous60
60. 004-001

<Flowers>Ovules

ovules .61
61. 004-010

<Flowers>Petals

petals , , ,62
62. 004-006

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , well exserted,63
63. 004-007

<Flowers>Style

style , exserted about as far as filaments, ;64
64. 004-009

<Flowers>Upper hypanthium

upper hypanthium , , ;65
65. 004-004

<Fruits>Apex

apex ,66
66. 005-004

<Fruits>Base

base to ,67
67. 005-005

<Fruits>Dimensions

5-8 x 1.7-2.8 cm68
68. 005-002

<Fruits>Hairs

densely pubescent and with frequent stalked glands, becoming subglabrous with age69
69. 005-001

<Fruits>Shape

elliptic in side view70
70. 005-003

<Inflorescences>Bracts

bracts leafy, conspicuous, .71
71. 003-004

<Inflorescences>Length

18-50(-70) cm long72
72. 003-002

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal73
73. 003-001

<Inflorescences>Stems

stems leafy to base of spike, , , with sparse to frequent stalked glands;74
74. 003-003

<Leaves>Apex

apex shortly ,75
75. 002-004

<Leaves>Base

base , usually minutely verruculose along all veins, especially on veinlets below, , stalked glands frequent on veins below and sparse above;76
76. 002-005

<Leaves>Dimensions

3.5-22 x 1.6-10 cm77
77. 002-003

<Leaves>Petiole

petiole , , with sparse to frequent stalked glands.78
78. 002-007

<Leaves>Shape

elliptic- to oblong-ovate79
79. 002-002

<Leaves>Texture

chartaceous to subcoriaceous80
80. 002-001

<Leaves>Veins

venation usually eucamptodromous or eucamptodromous-brochidodromous,81
81. 002-006

<Stalked glands>Head

head82
82. 006-003

<Stalked glands>Length

50-110 µm long83
83. 006-001

<Stalked glands>Stalks

stalk84
84. 006-002

<Wood>Hairs

‘combretaceous hairs’ and stalked glands present.85
85. 001-004

<Wood>Liana habit

Woody liana , stem86
86. 001-001

<Wood>Shrub habit

sometimes shrub87
87. 001-002

<Wood>Tree habit

treelet88
88. 001-003

Common Name

English (Guyana): bat-bane, jaroomany, wild almond, yariman English (Suriname): fremusunoto, jalimano, puspustere, ravetere, sekema, vreemoesoe-wisi, yariman

Description

Woody liana to 20 m, stem to 10 cm diam., sometimes shrub to 2.5 m or treelet to 4 m; ‘combretaceous hairs’ and stalked glands present. Leaves opposite or more or less so, usually alternate on flowering axis just below spike, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, elliptic- to oblong-ovate, 3.5-22 x 1.6-10 cm, apex shortly acuminate, base rounded to shallowly cordate, usually minutely verruculose along all veins, especially on veinlets below, sparsely to very sparsely pubescent but sometimes moderately so on veins especially below, stalked glands frequent on veins below and sparse above; venation usually eucamptodromous or eucamptodromous-brochidodromous, secondary veins 5-9 pairs; petiole 0.3-0.8 cm long, pubescent to densely so, with sparse to frequent stalked glands. Inflorescence simple, terminal, 18-50(-70) cm long; stems leafy to base of spike, rhachis very stout, densely fulvous-pubescent to -tomentose, with sparse to frequent stalked glands; bracts leafy, conspicuous, up to 4.5 x 1.5 cm at lower nodes. Flowers 5-merous, 18-33 mm long, weakly zygomorphic; lower hypanthium 6-14 mm long, pedicel-like region 3-7 mm long, narrowed to neck, densely pubescent, stalked glands very sparse to frequent,upper hypanthium deeply curved-cupuliform to -infundibuliform, 10-19 x 3.5-15 mm, pubescent to densely so outside, very sparse to frequent stalked glands, pubescent to densely so inside; calyx lobes erect, triangular to narrowly so, 2.5-6 mm long, apex acute; petals 5, erect, obovate to narrowly so or elliptic to broadly so, 6-16.4 x 4-5.8 mm, at anthesis slightly to far exserted, apex acute to subacute, pubescent on both surfaces; stamens 10, well exserted, filaments 19.5-29.5 mm long; disk thick, closely applied to style base, densely pubescent at margin, free portion ca. 1.5-2 mm long; style 26.5-44.5 mm long, exserted about as far as filaments, glabrous or pubescent basally; ovules 3-4. Fruit densely pubescent and with frequent stalked glands, becoming subglabrous with age, 5-8 x 1.7-2.8 cm, elliptic in side view, apex gradually tapered to narrowly rounded to obtuse, base gradually and narrowly tapered to pseudostipe of ca. 1-3 cm long, ridges 5, strong but fairly narrow and abruptly edgedStalked glands 50-110 µm long, stalk uniseriate, 6-14 cells long, obovoid head 25-35 x 20-25 µm

Distribution

Belize present, C America present, Guianas present, Southern America: Colombia (Colombia presentpresent); Guatemala (Guatemala present); Panamá (Panamá present); Venezuela (Venezuela present), along the Atlantic side of S America present, eastern Venezuela present, just south of the Amazon river-delta in north-eastern Pará present
C America from Belize and Guatemala to Panama and just into Colombia, and along the Atlantic side of S America from eastern Venezuela to just south of the Amazon river-delta in north-eastern Pará (Brazil), with a disjunction across most of Colombia and Venezuela for at least 1600 km; about 105 specimens from the Guianas (GU: 40; SU: 27; FG: 38).

Flowers

Flowers , , weakly zygomorphic;89
89. 004

Fruits

Fruit , , ,90
90. 005

Individuals Association

Guyana, Essequibo R., Ro. Schomburgk ser. I, 272 Suriname, Upper Suriname R., Paulus Cr., Mennega 215 along road between ferry and Roura, Weitzman & Hahn 247 Suriname, Upper Coppename R., Boon 1257 Suriname, Marowijne, along road near Albina, Lanjouw & Lindeman 320 Kaw R., lower and middle courses, de Granville 6852 Suriname, Nickerie, near Apoera, Corentyne R., Heyde 422 Suriname, Upper Suriname R., Paulus Cr., Mennega 203 Guyana, Demerara, Kamuni R., tributary of Demerara R., upstream from Santa Mission, Görts-van Rijn et al. 482 Guyana, Upper Demerara-Berbice Region, Berbice R., 20-30 km SW of Torani Canal, Pipoly et al. 11717

Inflorescences

Inflorescence simple, , ;91
91. 003

Leaves

Leaves opposite or more or less so, usually alternate on flowering axis just below spike, , , ,92
92. 002

Notes

The fruits, which are collected only infrequently, are said to be highly poisonous.

Phenology

Flowering ; fruiting .

Stalked glands

Stalked glands , ,93
93. 006

Wood

, or ;94
94. 001