Trichanthera

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Trichanthera

Content

<<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobes>Shape

mostly obtuse apically1
1. 005-002-003-001

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Limbs>Lobe number

5-lobed2
2. 005-003-004-001

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Lobes>Colour

red proximally, yellowish distally, red within3
3. 005-003-005-001

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Lobes>Shape

triangular4
4. 005-003-005-002

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Tube>Shape

cylindric, gradually enlarged upwards5
5. 005-003-003-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Lower lobes>Shape

oblong6
6. 005-006-004-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma>Lobe number

2-lobed7
7. 005-006-002-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers>Theca number

2-thecous8
8. 005-004-003-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae>Hairs

introrsely ciliate in a longitudinal line10
10. 005-004-004-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae>Shape

obtuse or rounded at both ends11
11. 005-004-004-002

<<<Leaves>Blade>Margins>Margin type

entire to undulate12
12. 003-001-003-001

<<Capsules>Seeds>Seed number

413
13. 006-003-001

<<Capsules>Seeds>Seed number per locule

214
14. 006-003-002

<<Capsules>Seeds>Shape

lenticular15
15. 006-003-003

<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobe number

5-lobed16
16. 005-002-002

<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobes

lobes subequal to equal in size, ;17
17. 005-002-003

<<Flowers>Calyx>Shape

campanulate18
18. 005-002-001

<<Flowers>Corolla>Hairs

densely silky or tomentose19
19. 005-003-002

<<Flowers>Corolla>Limbs

limb regular, ,20
20. 005-003-004

<<Flowers>Corolla>Lobes

lobes , subequal, , contorted in bud;21
21. 005-003-005

<<Flowers>Corolla>Shape

campanulate22
22. 005-003-001

<<Flowers>Corolla>Tube

lower half of tube23
23. 005-003-003

<<Flowers>Ovary>Lower lobes

lower lobe .24
24. 005-006-004

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovule number per locule

3 or 425
25. 005-006-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma

stigma ,26
26. 005-006-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Upper lobes

upper lobe rudimentary,27
27. 005-006-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

anthers ,28
28. 005-004-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments united into pairs at base,29
29. 005-004-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

430
30. 005-004-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Staminodes

staminodes ;31
31. 005-004-005

<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae

thecae equal in size, parallel, , ,32
32. 005-004-004

<<Inflorescences>Bracts>Bracteole number

233
33. 004-004-001

<<Inflorescences>Bracts>Shape

triangular34
34. 004-004-002

<<Leaves>Blade>Margins

margin .35
35. 003-001-003

<<Leaves>Blade>Shape

ovate to oblong36
36. 003-001-001

<<Leaves>Blade>Texture

subcoriaceous37
37. 003-001-002

<Capsules>Hairs

pubescent38
38. 006-001

<Capsules>Retinacula

retinacula present, septae with attached retinacula remaining attached to inner capsule wall;39
39. 006-002

<Capsules>Seeds

seeds , in each locule, .40
40. 006-003

<Flowers>Calyx

calyx , deeply ,41
41. 005-002

<Flowers>Corolla

corolla , , ,42
42. 005-003

<Flowers>Disk

disk annular;43
43. 005-005

<Flowers>Hairs

densely pubescent44
44. 005-001

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary with ovules in each locule,45
45. 005-006

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , didynamous, inserted in middle of corolla tube, exserted from mouth of corolla,46
46. 005-004

<Habit>Cystoliths

minute cystoliths47
47. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Bracts

bracts small, central flower of each triad ebracteolate and lateral flowers subtended by bracteoles at base of calyx;48
48. 004-004

<Inflorescences>Flower number

many-flowered49
49. 004-002

<Inflorescences>Flowers

flowers arranged in triads;50
50. 004-003

<Inflorescences>Pedicels

pedicels about as long as bracts.51
51. 004-005

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal52
52. 004-001

<Leaves>Blade

blades, , ,53
53. 003-001

<Shoots>Shape

obtusely quadrangular54
54. 002-001

Capsules

Capsules estipitate, ellipsoidal, ,55
55. 006

Description

Shrubs or trees with minute cystoliths. Shoots articulated, obtusely quadrangular, robust. Leaves opposite, petiolate; blades, ovate to oblong, subcoriaceous, margin entire to undulate. Inflorescences dense, terminal, many-flowered panicles or corymbs, flowers arranged in triads; bracts small, central flower of each triad ebracteolate and lateral flowers subtended by 2triangular bracteoles at base of calyx; pedicels about as long as bracts. Flowers conspicuous, distally densely pubescent; calyx campanulate, deeply 5-lobed, lobes subequal to equal in size, mostly obtuse apically; corolla campanulate, densely silky or tomentose, lower half of tube cylindric, gradually enlarged upwards, limb regular, 5-lobed, lobes red proximally, yellowish distally, red within, subequal, triangular, contorted in bud; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in middle of corolla tube, exserted from mouth of corolla, filaments united into pairs at base, anthers 2-thecous, thecae equal in size, parallel, introrsely ciliate in a longitudinal line, obtuse or rounded at both ends, staminodes 0; disk annular; ovary with 3 or 4 ovules in each locule, stigma 2-lobed, upper lobe rudimentary, lower lobe oblong. Capsules estipitate, ellipsoidal, pubescent, retinacula present, septae with attached retinacula remaining attached to inner capsule wall; seeds 4, 2 in each locule, lenticular.

Distribution

C America present, Guianas present, Southern America: Peru (Peru present)
Ranging from C America southward to Peru and Brazil; a genus of 2 species and 1 variety found in moist lowland forests, frequently along streams and swampy areas; in the Guianas 1 species and 1 variety.

Flowers

Flowers conspicuous, distally ;56
56. 005

Habit

Shrubs or trees with .57
57. 001

Inflorescences

Inflorescences dense, , panicles or corymbs,58
58. 004

Leaves

Leaves opposite, petiolate;59
59. 003

Notes

Specimens of Trichanthera are sometimes confused with those of the genus Bravaisia, but can be distinguished from the latter by basally rounded and awnless anther thecae, flowers borne on pedicels 2-11 mm long, and capsule which are pubescent at maturity. The anther thecae in Bravaisia are basally awned with a single, subulate projection, the flowers are sessile or borne on pedicels less than 2 mm long, and the capsules are glabrous at maturity.

Shoots

Shoots articulated, , robust.60
60. 002

Studied:

T. gigantea var. guianensis.

Wood

Growth rings absent.
Vessels diffuse, solitary for 30%, the remainder in radial multiples of 2-3, few clusters, 8 (5-11) per sq. mm, outline elliptic, diameter 150 (120-190) µm. Vessel member length 770 (300-1200) µm. Perforations simple, intervascular pits 5-6 µm, often slits confluent; vessel/ray pitting of two sizes: (1) like the intervessel pitting, and (2) large, longitudinal, both types present in the same cell.
Rays uni- and multiseriate 4-5 per mm. The uniseriates few, composed of upright cells, the multiseriates 3-5 cells wide, the body of procumbent and square cells, margin usually 1-2 cells high, occasionally much higher; sheath cells present in some rays. Width 60-80 µm, height up to 3 mm. More or less translucent cystoliths frequently present.
Parenchyma scarce, restricted to a few vasicentric strands, seldom forming a complete ring. Strands of 2-4 cells.
Ground tissue of thin-walled septate fibres. Diameter 23-40 µm, walls 4.5 µm thick, occasionally gelatinous. Pits simple, numerous in radial walls, less frequently in tangential walls. Length 1500 (900-2000) µm. F/V ratio: 1.97.