Combretum spinosum

Primary tabs

Combretum spinosum


Woody liana to 3 m or stems trailing along ground; stem with strong infra-axillary spines up to 3 cm; ‘combretaceous hairs’ and stalked glands present. Leaves opposite or more or less so, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, elliptic to obovate-elliptic or narrowly so, 1.5-12.5 x 1.1-5.5 cm, apex rounded to acuminate, base cuneate to rounded, usually densely minutely verruculose along all veins, especially minor veinlets below, often hairless but sometimes sparsely pubescent especially on midvein below, with stalked glands rather frequent on veins below and sparse above but very small and inconspicuous; venation usually eucamptodromous, sometimes eucamptodromous-brochidodromous, secondary veins 4-9 pairs; petiole 0.2-1 cm long, glabrous to pubescent, with sparse stalked glands, often disarticulating at varying distances above base which remains to become spine next season. Inflorescence simple or branched, in leaf-axils, often forming a raceme or sparse panicle of spikes up to 16 cm long, each spike 1-11.5 cm long, slender, its axis sparsely to densely pubescent and with sparse to frequent stalked glands. Flowers 5-merous, 3.2-4.4 mm long; lower hypanthium 1.5-1.8 mm long, without pedicel-like region, usually slightly narrowed to neck, sparsely to densely appressed-pubescent, stalked glands absent to frequent,upper hypanthium campanulate to infundibuliform, 1.5-2.6 x 2-2.5 mm, more or less hairless outside, without or with very sparse stalked glands, sparsely pubescent inside; calyx lobes erect, triangular, 0.6-1 mm, apex subacute to obtuse; petals 5, patent to reflexed at anthesis, obovate to narrowly so, 1.5-1.6 x 0.8 mm, exserted, apex rounded or sometimes retuse, pubescent outside and on margins; stamens 10, well exserted, filaments 3.6-4.8 mm long; disk small but thick, closely applied to style base, pubescent at margin, free portion ca. 0.2 mm long; style 5.2-6.4 mm long, exserted about as far as filaments, sparsely pilose; ovules 5-8. Fruit glabrous and with very sparse stalked glands, 1-1.4 x 0.4-0.5 cm, linear to narrowly oblong in side view, sometimes wider near base, apex rounded to obtuse, base retusewithout pseudostipe, ridges 5, strong, narrow, but without true wings, dark brown when dried. Stalked glands 35-80 µm, mostly appressed to organ, stalk uniseriate, ca. 5 cells long, obovoid head 25-40 x 15-25 µm.


Bolivar present, Guyana present, Southern America: Cuba (Cuba present); Venezuela (Venezuela presentpresent), Trinidad present
Apparently confined to Venezuela, but also very scattered and rare in the West Indies from Cuba to Trinidad; occurs close to Guyana in Venezuela (Bolívar): Reserva Forestal Imataca, Cuyuni R., between Isla Anacoco and Botanamo R., Stergios et al. 5272, 5294 (LTR, PORT).