Acanthaceae

Primary tabs

Acanthaceae

Content

<<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobes>Lobe number

4 or 5, rarely (Thunbergia) an entire ring, or 12-20-lobed1
1. 005-001-001-001

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Limbs>Lip number

2-lipped (rarely 1-lipped)2
2. 005-002-001-002

<<<Flowers>Corolla>Limbs>Lobe number

5-lobed3
3. 005-002-001-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae>Shape

obtuse or rounded, or basally spurred, longitudinally dehiscent4
4. 005-003-005-002

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae>Theca number

1 or 25
5. 005-003-005-001

<<<Flowers>Style>Stigma>Lobe number

2-lobed6
6. 005-008-002-001

<<<Fruits>Seeds>Testa>Hairs

sometimes with mucilaginous trichomes which expand when moistened7
7. 006-003-003-002

<<<Fruits>Seeds>Testa>Texture

smooth or roughened8
8. 006-003-003-001

<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobes

lobes ;9
9. 005-001-001

<<Flowers>Corolla>Limbs

the limb or ,10
10. 005-002-001

<<Flowers>Corolla>Lobes

lobes imbricate or contorted in bud, basally usually divided into a distinct narrow tube and wider throat;11
11. 005-002-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Locule number

2-locular12
12. 005-006-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovule number per locule

2 collateral (Thunbergia) or more commonly 2-10 superposed ovules per locule13
13. 005-006-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Fertile stamen number

214
14. 005-003-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments free or basally connate in pairs,15
15. 005-003-004

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

416
16. 005-003-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Staminode number

1 or 217
17. 005-003-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Thecae

anther thecae usually , usually parallel, rarely divergent or transverse, muticous (without a projection), ;18
18. 005-003-005

<<Flowers>Style>Shape

filiform19
19. 005-008-001

<<Flowers>Style>Stigma

stigma entire or more commonly , one lobe frequently smaller than the other.20
20. 005-008-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Seed number

2-many21
21. 006-003-001

<<Fruits>Seeds>Shape

usually flattened22
22. 006-003-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Testa

testa , .23
23. 006-003-003

<<Inflorescences>Flowers>Bracteole number

224
24. 004-002-001

<<Leaves>Cystoliths>Colour

white25
25. 003-001-001

<Branches>Shape

decussate, frequently angled, more rarely terete26
26. 002-001

<Flowers>Calyx

calyx synsepalous at least basally, persistent,27
27. 005-001

<Flowers>Corolla

corolla sympetalous,28
28. 005-002

<Flowers>Disk

disk annular and nectar-producing at base of ovary;29
29. 005-005

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary superior, , either with ;30
30. 005-006

<Flowers>Placenta

placenta axile;31
31. 005-007

<Flowers>Pollen

pollen very varied in structure, striation and reticulation;32
32. 005-004

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , usually didynamous, or fertile and sometimes accompanied by staminodes, adnate to corolla tube,33
33. 005-003

<Flowers>Style

style , simple,34
34. 005-008

<Fruits>Seeds

seeds , , sometimes spheroidal (Gynocraterium, Staurogyne),35 seeds usually borne on hook-like retinacula (funicles), these persistent in valves after seeds have been discharged or retinacula lacking (Gynocraterium, Staurogyne, Thunbergia);36
35. 006-003, 36. 006-002

<Fruits>Valve number

2-valved37
37. 006-001

<Habit>Growth form

Prostrate, erect or rarely, climbing38
38. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Bracts

bracts often leaf-like, sometimes enclosing corolla tube.39
39. 004-003

<Inflorescences>Flowers

flowers solitary or arranged in spikes, cymes or racemes, often densely clustered, frequently in axils of conspicuous bracts and with bracteoles;40
40. 004-002

<Inflorescences>Position

axillary and/or terminal41
41. 004-001

<Leaves>Cystoliths

cystoliths (intercellular concretions, usually of calcium carbonate, which appear as streaks on the upper surface), but lacking in Aphelandra, Gynocraterium, Nelsonia, Staurogyne, and Thunbergia42
42. 003-001

Branches

Branches , often with transverse ridges across the node.43
43. 002

Description

Prostrate, erect or rarely, climbing, herbs or shrubs, or rarely small trees. Branches decussate, frequently angled, more rarely terete, often with transverse ridges across the node. Leaves opposite, subopposite or whorled (Crossandra), exstipulate, simple, usually with cystoliths (intercellular concretions, usually of calcium carbonate, which appear as white streaks on the upper surface), but lacking in Aphelandra, Gynocraterium, Nelsonia, Staurogyne, and Thunbergia, margins entire, crenate or undulate. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal, flowers solitary or arranged in spikes, cymes or racemes, often densely clustered, frequently in axils of conspicuous bracts and with 2 bracteoles; bracts often leaf-like, sometimes enclosing corolla tube. Flowers zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, bisexual; calyx synsepalous at least basally, persistent, lobes 4 or 5, rarely (Thunbergia) an entire ring, or 12-20-lobed; corolla sympetalous, the limb 5-lobed or 2-lipped (rarely 1-lipped),lobes imbricate or contorted in bud, basally usually divided into a distinct narrow tube and wider throat; stamens 4, usually didynamous, or 2 fertile and sometimes accompanied by 1 or 2 staminodes, adnate to corolla tube, filaments free or basally connate in pairs, anther thecae usually 1 or 2, usually parallel, rarely divergent or transverse, muticous (without a projection), obtuse or rounded, or basally spurred, longitudinally dehiscent; pollen very varied in structure, striation and reticulation; disk annular and nectar-producing at base of ovary; ovary superior, 2-locular, either with 2 collateral (Thunbergia) or more commonly 2-10 superposed ovules per locule; placenta axile; style filiform, simple, stigma entire or more commonly 2-lobed, one lobe frequently smaller than the other. Fruits loculicidal, 2-valved capsules, frequently explosively dehiscent either on drying or on wetting, seeds usually borne on hook-like retinacula (funicles), these persistent in valves after seeds have been discharged or retinacula lacking (Gynocraterium, Staurogyne, Thunbergia); seeds 2-many, usually flattened, sometimes spheroidal (Gynocraterium, Staurogyne), testa smooth or roughened, sometimes with mucilaginous trichomes which expand when moistened.

Distribution

Guianas present, Pantropical present, pansubtropical present, temperate zones of both hemispheres present
Pantropical and pansubtropical, sparingly distributed in temperate zones of both hemispheres; about 2500 species in about 250 genera; in the Guianas 83 species in 24 genera.

Flowers

Flowers zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, bisexual;44
44. 005

Fruits

Fruits loculicidal, capsules, frequently explosively dehiscent either on drying or on wetting,45
45. 006

Habit

, herbs or shrubs, or rarely small trees.46
46. 001

Individuals Association

Granville, J.J. de et al. B-4581 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 205 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2706 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 5822 Benoist, R. 1167 Hoff, M. et al. 5479 Suriname, Boon, H. 1027 Richard, L.C. s.n. Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1735 Raynal-Roques, A. AR. 20030 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5620 Granville, J.J. de et al. 738 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 401 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 47046 Suriname, Soeprato 22J Suriname, anno 1924, Warren, L.B. s.n. Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 132 Guyana, Thurn, E.F. im 81 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 1351 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 638 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 4497 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2484 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 202 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3371 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4706 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2112 Suriname, Miller, J.S. & W.D. Hauk 9397 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 4087 Suriname, Boon, H. 1016 Guyana, Steege, H., ter 516 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 772 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 14 Suriname, Lasseigne, A. 4406 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 7369 Suriname, BW 258 Cremers, G. et al. 5958 anno 1901, Lemée, A. s.n. Suriname, LBB 16450 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 362 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.R.A. Görts et al. 625 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 84 Suriname, Emden, W.C. van s.n. Fleury, M. 316 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2815 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8192 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 4515 Suriname, Boon, H. 1114 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. 110.S Suriname, Bartlett, A.W. s.n. Guyana, Linder, D.H. 77 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1450 Cremers, G. et al. 5759 Granville, J.J. de et al. C-28 Guyana, McConnell, F.V. & J.J. Quelch 277 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1423 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2635 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 378 Alexandre, D.Y. 329 Suriname, LBB 12831 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 545 Mori, S.A., et al. 20863 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 537 Irwin, H.S. et al. 47813 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1546 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 4867 Weitzman, A. 325 Guyana, anno 1838, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. I, 305 Benoist, R. 814 Suriname, Kegel, H. 451 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 539 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 22710 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 828 anno 1838, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Feuillet, C. 10365 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 521 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4060 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4215 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9442 Feuillet, C. 298 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 167 Guyana, Myers, J.G. 5715 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3567 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1459 Oldeman, R.A.A. 42 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.R.A. Görts et al. 527 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8264 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2518 Maas, P.J.M., et al. 2215 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3503 Richard, L.C. s.n. Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 349 Haxaire, C. 342 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8163 Guyana, Whitton, B.A. 52 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 2163 Poncy, O. 58 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2748 Guyana, anno 1838, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. I, 555 Guyana, anno 1880, Thurn, E.F. im s.n. Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 252 Sastre, C., et al 8151 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6817 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-4574 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9659 Cremers, G. et al. 14103 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24480 Skog, L. & C. Feuillet 7145 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1122 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 1320 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 600 Hoff, M. et al. 5422 Suriname, BW 4232 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3337 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 54369 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 544 anno 1897, Soubirou, G. s.n. Marshall, N. & J. Rombold 204 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10923 Guyana, Wilson-Browne, G. 10 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1123 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 1058 Hoff, M. et al. 5710 Sagot, P. 441 Gentry, A. & E. Zardini 50283 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 612 Granville, J.J. de et al. 1796 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2676 Suriname, BW 3729 Haxaire, C. 750 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3300 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6356 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Suriname, Hermelijn, W. 14 Sastre, C., et al 8176 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1884 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 826 Guyana, Andel, T. van, et al. 1948 Granville, J.J. de et al. 12423 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 796 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3644 Guyana, Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A. et al. 293 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.L. Stoffers et al. 112 Mori, S.A., et al. 19057 Benoist, R. 1235 anno 1858, Sagot, P. s.n. Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 92 Guyana, Clark, D. 2495 Suriname, Palmer-Jones, R.M. 115 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 8689 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 843 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 1121 Leprieur, F.R.M. 279 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1998 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9572 Benoist, R. 727 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 764 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3305 Granville, J.J. de et al. 6995 Suriname, LBB 10981 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., et al. 240 Guyana, Acevedo Rdgz., P. 3389 Guyana, Acevedo Rdgz., P. 3351 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2884 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5716 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 134 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1988 Suriname, Rohr, J.P.B. von s.n. Suriname, Soeprato 43F, 51 Granville, J.J. de et al. 642 Suriname, Evans, R., et al. 2768 Wachenheim, H. 51 Mori, S.A., et al. 23771 Hoff, M. et al. 6086 Suriname, Sauvain, M. s.n. Guyana, Ek, R.C. 996 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-4975 Suriname, Bünzli, G.H. 1 Jul 1824, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 7331 Guyana, Graham, E.H. 125 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1610 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 727 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2346 Feuillet, C. 286 Suriname, Soeprato 10A Broadway, W.E. 509 Suriname, Tresling, J. 69 Wittington, V. 103 Leblond, J.B. 394 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 385 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 6453 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4777 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 434 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 2768 Suriname, Voltz, F. s.n. Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 3788 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16607 Suriname, Soeprato 15B without collector s.n. Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 21 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3294 Cremers, G. et al. 6722 Guyana, Whitton, B.A. 153 Leprieur, F.R.M. 277 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 4a Maas, P.J.M., et al. 2229 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1790/29 anno 1792, Leblond, J.B. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. T-906 Suriname, BW 4114 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4959 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 229 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 420 Leblond, J.B. 272 Guyana, Appun, C.F. 1387 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 100 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 981 Feuillet, C. 2966 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 4814 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1999 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9454 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 282 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 3 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 64 Feuillet, C. 2434 anno 1840, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Leprieur, F.R.M. 280 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2299 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 6331 Hoff, M. et al. 5071 Irwin, H.S. et al. 47955 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3405 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 698 Granville, J.J. de et al. 12169 Fleury, M. 848 Suriname, LBB 14080 Sastre, C., et al 8104 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 3412 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 164 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2559 Skog, L. & C. Feuillet 7247 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 7 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 755 anno 1840, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17147 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 66 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1481 Wachenheim, H. s.n. Feuillet, C. 3701 Suriname, Dirven, J.G.P. 731 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 136 Mori, S.A., et al. 14799 Benoist, R. 1713 Granville, J.J. de et al. 1924 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 113 Martin, J. s.n. Cremers, G. et al. 13825 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2522 Blanc, M. 146 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4801 Suriname, Boon, H. 1190 anno 1862, Mélinon, E. s.n. Guyana, Hoffman, B. 1377 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17564 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16536 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 54551 Suriname, Landbouwproefstation 619 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 3473 Mori, S.A., et al. 14848 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1767 Granville, J.J. de et al. 1531 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3994 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2706 Richard, L.C. s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. B-3708 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 771 Suriname, Tjon-Lim-Sang, R.J.M. & I.H.M. van der Wiel 95 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8230 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3507 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 238 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2616 Hoff, M. et al. 7655 Feuillet, C. 2199 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 2529 Granville, J.J. de et al. 6722 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2936 Guyana, Cook, C.D.K. 210 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 7126 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55848 Mélinon, E. 360 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10083 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2349 Hallé, F. 466 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 481 Benoist, R. 20 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1690 Maguire, B. et al. 38009 anno 1819-21, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 167 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1046 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 22 Cremers, G. et al. 9441 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 858 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 3960 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 54971 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 256 Sagot, P. s.n. anno 1862, Rech s.n. Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2852 Benoist, R. 214 Guyana, Tillett, S.C. & C.L. Tillett 45435 Guyana, Parker, M.C. s.n. Irwin, H.S. et al. 47219 anno 1962, Hoock, J. s.n. Sagot, P. 439 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. s.n. Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 196 Mori, S.A., et al. 21053 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 437 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2816 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8874 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2989 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 323 Fournet, A. 149 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 1042 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2530 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1112 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 419 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6620 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 7 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 529 Suriname, BW 120 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 1345 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6361 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 23880 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16653 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 214 Schnell, R. 11566 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2779 Suriname, BW 750 Suriname, BW 6170 Suriname, BW 652 Leprieur, F.R.M. 262 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 708 Suriname, Boon, H. 1010 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4014 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1348 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 1346 Suriname, Granville, J.J. de et al. 12037 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 1856 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1783 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 268 Granville, J.J. de et al. 2530 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1484 Suriname, BW 627 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2255 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 766 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2621 Guyana, anno 1837, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. I, 377 Sastre, C., et al 1802 Perrottet, G.S. 206 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 542 Guyana, Graham, E.H. 232 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1303 Granville, J.J. de et al. 199 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 391 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2390 Guyana, Wilson-Browne, G. 184 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2457 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55666 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 412 Petitbon, J. 123 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 23882 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 539 Suriname, Samuels, J.A. 62 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-3763 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 217 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7529 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55484 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2897 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4911 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8184 Veyret, Y. 1644 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4756 Guyana, Andel, T. van, et al. 1988 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 596 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 247 a Guyana, Sastre, C., et al 8051 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 213 Granville, J.J. de et al. 637 Hoff, M. et al. 6094 Sastre, C., et al 5954 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8185 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1450 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 780 Aubréville, A. 150 Granville, J.J. de et al. 615 Richard, L.C. 439 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4585 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 263 Suriname, LBB 14073 Suriname, Soeprato 14B Sagot, P. 2 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 46 anno 1864, Mélinon, E. s.n. Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 1163 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 209 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 46132A Wallnöfer, B. 13473 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17240 Alexandre, D.Y. 268 Richard, L.C. s.n. anno 1824, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Fleury, M. 667 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 540 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 428 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 57652 Suriname, LBB 14078 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5684 Broadway, W.E. 569 Feuillet, C. 401 Guyana, anno 1836, Schomburgk, Ro. 5.S Suriname, Tresling, J. 382 Maas, P.J.M., et al. 2219 Guyana, Little, E.L. 16938 Mori, S.A., et al. 19084 Guyana, Beckett, J.E. 8524 Guyana, Snow, D.W. 19 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 247 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2352 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 249 Feuillet, C. 2455 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1042 Suriname, Kegel, H. 373 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4647 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-5049 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2425 Guyana, McConnell, F.V. & J.J. Quelch 188 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2893 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1561 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 4848 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-946 Cremers, G. et al. 12391 Suriname, LBB 9612 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3551 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 3589 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1955 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 6 Feuillet, C. 1460 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 2400 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 877 Granville, J.J. de et al. 12085 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 612 Oldeman, R.A.A. 453 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 7188 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 109 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1294 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 1461 Leblond, J.B. 271 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4887 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 699 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-764 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 307 Suriname, Soeprato 3F Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3137 Suriname, Kappler, A. 819a Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 8058 Suriname, LBB 13229 Suriname, Mori, S.A., et al. 17949 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9363 Guyana, Andel, T. van, et al. 1769 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 216 Schnell, R. 12265 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 537 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 552 Weitzman, A. 208 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 45968A Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 280 Benoist, R. 813 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 65 Suriname, BW 5344 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 506 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 75 Black, G.A., et al. 54-17539 Cremers, G. et al. 7219 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 173 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 398 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana M249 Suriname, Tresling, J. 107 Cremers, G. et al. 6671 Richard, L.C. s.n. Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 425 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 22944 Cowan, R.S. 38934 Fournet, A. 212 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1255 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 347 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1682 Mori, S.A., et al. 23075 Granville, J.J. de et al. 1002 Suriname, Webster, G.L. 24094 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 2476 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 23740 Richard, L.C. s.n. Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 898 Suriname, Tresling, J. 133 Suriname, Granville, J.J. de et al. 12071 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.L. Stoffers et al. 519 Suriname, Stahel, G. 20 Irwin, H.S. et al. 47609 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., et al. 37 Guyana, Kvist, L.P., et al. 141 Feuillet, C. 675 Suriname, BW 6970 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 1114 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 1084 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 30 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 516 Wachenheim, H. 155 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9364 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2117 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., et al. 54 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 88 Mori, S.A., et al. 23232 Leprieur, F.R.M. 163 Guyana, Knapp, S. & J. Mallet 2847 Suriname, Tjon-Lim-Sang, R.J.M. & I.H.M. van der Wiel 33 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17366 Mélinon, E. 429 Guyana, Bartlett, A.W. 8370 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10318 Granville, J.J. de et al. T449 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2619 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2537 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2776 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 8178 anno 1862, Rech s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. 7298 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1418 Suriname, BW 247 Richard, L.C. s.n. Hoff, M. et al. 6090 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55197 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 639 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1420 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 22919 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 747 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 9 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 907 Feuillet, C. 3642 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 4836 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 5178 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 275 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3691 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1545 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 1261 Sastre, C., et al 5676 Guyana, Reinders, M.A. & J. Valenzuela 59 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9787 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 4255 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 8104 Jacquemin, H. 1874 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 3540 Granville, J.J. de et al. T1128 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2887 anno 1802, Gabriel, M. s.n. Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2704 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 764 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4283 Suriname, Stahel, G. 53 Granville, J.J. de et al. 9970 Suriname, Samuels, J.A. 16 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-721 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 3167 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 48 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3165 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 769 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3733 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 757 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3385 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. & J.C. Lindeman 283 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8721 Cremers, G. et al. 6707 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 9045 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. s.n. Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 4 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3228 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4823 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7506 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3407 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 4530 Suriname, Hugh-Jones, D.H. 3 Irwin, H.S. et al. 47334 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-134 Suriname, Soeprato 166 Guyana, Tate, G.H.H. 123 Benoist, R. 815 Suriname, Doesburg, P.H. van s.n. Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2566 anno 1775, Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 7037 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 279 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 8120 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 214 Oldeman, R.A.A. 269 Guyana, Kelloff, C.L. 909 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 2703 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 248 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3486 Suriname, Collector indigenus 83 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 1159 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 262 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3146 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 147 Broadway, W.E. 784 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55118 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1719 Suriname, Soeprato 25E Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6705 Rech 13 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1007 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 267 Riera, B. 741 Cremers, G. et al. 6723 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17481 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 229 Guyana, Mutchnick, P. 82 Sagot, P. 442 Moretti, C. 56 Guyana, Bartlett, A.W. 8360 Gely, A. 35 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10680 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 54102 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.L. Stoffers et al. 55 Suriname, Hugh-Jones, D.H. 8 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 145 anno 1854, Sagot, P. s.n. Feuillet, C. 790 anno 1819-21, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Suriname, Soeprato 165 Suriname, Collector indigenus 217 Granville, J.J. de et al. 7426 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4676 Suriname, BW 1112 Hoff, M. et al. 6356 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. 97.S Granville, J.J. de et al. 8627 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 110 Granville, J.J. de et al. 690 Herb. Rudge s.n. Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 257 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 421a Granville, J.J. de et al. 10106 Suriname, Mori, S.A., et al. 18144 Guyana, anno 1841, Schomburgk, Ri. 141 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 778 Guyana, Goodland, R. 337 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 731 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8049 Suriname, BW 4622 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 346 Suriname, Hermelijn, W. 19 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 1 Leprieur, F.R.M. 365 Schnell, R. 11997 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 116 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 3801 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2040 Granville, J.J. de et al. 2907 Suriname, Stahel, G., Wilh. Exp. 272 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 1242 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 1147 Suriname, Boon, H. 1034 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1771 Hahn, W.J., et al. 3619 Granville, J.J. de et al. C-66 Mori, S.A., et al. 8698 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4519 anno 1842, Mélinon, E. s.n. anno 1824, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. 8147 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4946 Granville, J.J. de et al. 2412 without collector s.n. Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3857 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2083 Prévost, M.-F., et al. I544 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 11752 anno 1962, Hoock, J. s.n. Guyana, Hill, S.R. 27304 Suriname, Doesburg, P.H. van 73 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 459 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 1159a Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 91 Gustafsson, M.H.G. et al. 330 Suriname, Hermelijn, W. 3 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 626 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 828 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3226A Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Richard, L.C. s.n. Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 537 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3503 Suriname, Stahel, G. 12 Sagot, P. 440 Petitbon, J. 179 Feuillet, C. 99 Riera, B. 1715 anno 1985, Feuillet, C. s.n. Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 338 anno 1824, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Mori, S.A., et al. 20865 Mélinon, E. 258 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16681 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 507 Perrottet, G.S. 204 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 250 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2175 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 966 Suriname, Soeprato 29F Sagot, P. s.n. Feuillet, C. 1649 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 94 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 3253 Moretti, C. 546 Suriname, Dirven, J.G.P. 743 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-4859 Cremers, G. et al. 4930 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1636 Leprieur, F.R.M. 366 Feuillet, C. 2741 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 336 Broadway, W.E. 377 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 574 Feuillet, C. 1329 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4493 Guyana, Tillett, S.C. & C.L. Tillett 45756 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3292 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-992 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 449 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 52 Suriname, Tresling, J. 118 Marshall, N. & J. Rombold 124 Feuillet, C. 2135 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 548 Suriname, Landbouwproefstation 620 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 139 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 340 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1370 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1124 Rech 19 Benoist, R. 1242 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1450 Suriname, anno 1924, Warren, L.B. s.n. Fleury, M. 690 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1219 Leschenault, J. s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. 1526 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 495 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 22718 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 29 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. 11694 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-754 Suriname, LBB 16381 Granville, J.J. de et al. 7346 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 1309 Suriname, Vening Meinesz, F.A. 4 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3801 anno 1775, Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 2407 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 3152 Jacquemin, H. 2128 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 511 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 240 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4215 Schnell, R. 11813 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 262 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 473 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1408 Schnell, R. 11812 Alexandre, D.Y. 331 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 6422 Mori, S.A., et al. 19180 Suriname, BW 3739 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 313 Granville, J.J. de et al. T1170 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 83 Guyana, Andel, T. van, et al. 706 Suriname, Splitgerber, F.L. 49 Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Boom, B.M. et al. 10753 Suriname, BW 671 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4198 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2080 Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Suriname, Boon, H. 1095 Suriname, Tresling, J. 468 Suriname, BW 6514 Feuillet, C. 1017 Cremers, G. et al. 5195 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 330 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1106 anno 1845, Mélinon, E. s.n. Leprieur, F.R.M. 266 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1733 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 23873 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 739 Leprieur, F.R.M. 281 Guyana, Mutchnick, P. 415 Suriname, BW 2992 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7317 Guyana, Persaud, R. 20 Suriname, Jonker-Verhoef, A.M.E. & F.P. Jonker 608 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 585 Feuillet, C. 2134 Suriname, LBB 16143 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1622a Suriname, LBB 12073 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 972 Taverne, B. 42 Fleury, M. 478 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4915 Guyana, Appun, C.F. 889 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 2 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6357 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1259 Richard, L.C. s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. 11902 Suriname, Soeprato 5B anno 1962, Hoock, J. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3549 Boom, B.M. et al. 10798 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1254 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 410 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 85 Suriname, Stahel, G. 109 Granville, J.J. de et al. 8525 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 4089 Mori, S.A., et al. 23903 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2300 Suriname, Boon, H. 1026 Skog, L. & C. Feuillet 7304 Granville, J.J. de et al. 2430 Sagot, P. 419 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 3242 anno 1877, Crevaux, J.N. s.n. Suriname, Splitgerber, F.L. 523 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 760 Guyana, anno 1968, Brown, B. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1720 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10329 Cremers, G. et al. 6912 Guyana, Linder, D.H. 82 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16825 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1621 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10070 Suriname, BW 5298 Suriname, BW 2127 Fleury, M. 441 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 204 Daniel, R. R.D.2 Cremers, G. et al. 5001 Sagot, P. 1313 Feuillet, C. 26 Cremers, G. et al. 13591 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2892 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 589 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1566 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 3472 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 788 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3332 Hoff, M. et al. 5020 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 1302 Cremers, G. et al. 8188 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1248 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 8363 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1679 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2146 Cremers, G. et al. 9590 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 192 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 542 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3886 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 421b Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 1311 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3642 Guyana, McConnell, F.V. & J.J. Quelch 253 Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 328 Sagot, P. 1115 Cremers, G. et al. 8462 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 885 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3734 anno 1839, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Suriname, Tresling, J. 64 Granville, J.J. de et al. 1287 Granville, J.J. de et al. 10050 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 923 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3181 Guyana, Linder, D.H. 62 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4629 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 339 Guyana, Mell, C.D. & R.C. Mell 258 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2122 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 424 Guyana, anno 1841-42, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. II, 331 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 208 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 1472 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 5259 Hoff, M. et al. 6805 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 981 Suriname, BW 192 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 2216 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2206 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 466 anno 1802, Gabriel, M. s.n. Granville, J.J. de et al. 553 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 281 Suriname, Daniels, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 887 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 2442 Suriname, Mori, S.A., et al. 8477 Suriname, BW 3183 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2081 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 112 anno 1864, Mélinon, E. s.n. Fleury, M. 428 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 7 Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 354 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 2104 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 757 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 379 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 684 Suriname, BW 5337 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 9036 anno 1820, Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Suriname, Boon, H. 1158 Alexandre, D.Y. 23 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 413 Oldeman, R.A.A. BC. 17 Hequet, V. 340 Toriola-Marbot, D. 370 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 422 Wachenheim, H. 336 Mori, S.A., et al. 19146 Suriname, Webster, G.L. 24112 anno 1850, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Suriname, Stahel, G., Wilh. Exp. 219 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16916 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.L. Stoffers et al. 330 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 520 Suriname, Acevedo Rdgz., P. 5848 Suriname, Kegel, H. 444 Suriname, BW 5343 Suriname, Dirven, J.G.P. 739 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-176 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2882 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1866 Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 426a Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3801 Suriname, Stahel, G., Wilh. Exp. 189 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 57649 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17419 Mori, S.A., et al. 22085 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-113 Granville, J.J. de et al. C-98 anno 1901, Lemée, A. s.n. Suriname, Collector indigenus 252 Sagot, P. 1010 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2886 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 1028 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6186 Sastre, C., et al 8145 Fleury, M. 561 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ri. 477 Cremers, G. et al. 7228 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 312 Suriname, Landbouwproefstation 622 Cremers, G. et al. 6386 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 195 Suriname, Schmidt, L. J. 147 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3485 Blanc, M. 143 Guyana, Atkinson, D.J. 59 Sagot, P. 1041 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2007 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6589 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 4817 Granville, J.J. de et al. 7472 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 23044 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2787 Moretti, C. 476 Granville, J.J. de et al. 5123 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. I, 192 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2370 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3479 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2813 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 1176 Cremers, G. et al. 4959 Petitbon, J. 147 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4728 Suriname, Soeprato 177 Suriname, Doesburg, P.H. van 205 Guyana, Grewal, M.S. & R. Persaud 152 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1581 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 761 Suriname, Webster, G.L. 24123 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4505 Suriname, Samuels, J.A. 11 Granville, J.J. de et al. 946 Granville, J.J. de et al. 7717 Suriname, Tresling, J. 255 Alexandre, D.Y. 269 Sagot, P. 4 Feuillet, C. 2133 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 9051 Suriname, anno 1922, Reyne, A. s.n. Willemse, R.H. 28 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 54121 Guyana, Goodland, R. 988 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4587 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 24029 Guyana, Tate, G.H.H. 196 Guyana, Andel, T. van, et al. 1316 Hoff, M. et al. 5024 Feuillet, C. 10300 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 318 Sastre, C., et al 5572 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3559 Wachenheim, H. 366 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 381 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 68 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 247 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1702 Wachenheim, H. 183 Guyana, Henkel, T.W. 4608 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 221 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 371 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 510 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1639 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55263 Geay, F. 350 Guyana, Knapp, S. & J. Mallet 2805 Suriname, Tresling, J. 93 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 1516 Sastre, C., et al 5646 Hoff, M. et al. 6572 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 5 Suriname, Tjon-Lim-Sang, R.J.M. & I.H.M. van der Wiel 72 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 325 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 343 Hallé, F. 769 Sagot, P. 809 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 3664 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 5867 Guyana, Myers, J.G. 5840 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 418 anno 1819, Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Barrier, S. 3818 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 1101 anno 1850, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 270 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3869 Suriname, Florschütz, J. & P.A. Florschütz 1734 Hoff, M. et al. 6263 Suriname, Tulleken, J.E. 391 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 507 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 1146 Feuillet, C. 665 Suriname, BW 2946 Riera, B. 677 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4221a Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 941 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 379 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 712 Suriname, LBB 13691 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7473 Cremers, G. et al. 6369 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 301 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4664 Deward, G. 244 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 989 Mori, S.A., et al. 19059 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 4144 anno 1821, Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Sastre, C., et al 5590 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 310 Suriname, Kuyper, J. 19 Suriname, Vaughan, R.E. 10349 Guyana, Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A. et al. 55 Prance, G.T. et al. 30665 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3239 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 766 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 105 Guyana, Goodland, R. 543 Granville, J.J. de et al. 3015 Suriname, Acevedo Rdgz., P. 5960 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 46132 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & E.A. Mennega et al. 87 Mori, S.A., et al. 18781 Feuillet, C. 701 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 3360 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 156 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 754 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.C. de Roon 696 Sastre, C., et al 3830 anno 1857, Sagot, P. s.n. Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 5511 Hoff, M. et al. 5173 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 397 Granville, J.J. de et al. 7323 Cremers, G. et al. 4977 Merlier, G.Y. 254 Guyana, Thurn, E.F. im s.n. Cremers, G. et al. 4929 Suriname, Landbouwproefstation 613 Alexandre, D.Y. 103 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. II, 157 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 2477 Guyana, McDowell, T. et al. 3517 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 6 Cremers, G. et al. 5957 Cremers, G. et al. 8452 Suriname, LBB 12071 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 340 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-3652 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. & P.J.M. Maas 2431 Grenand, P. 1782 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 335 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2291 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 870 Granville, J.J. de et al. 645 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 163 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2779 Suriname, Collector indigenus 89 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van et al. 2518 Suriname, Soeprato 279 Suriname, LBB 14718 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al 8137 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-5036 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. 8347 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1586 Guyana, Graham, E.H. 336 Granville, J.J. de et al. B-4522 Broadway, W.E. 95 anno 1839, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Suriname, Kappler, A. 2097 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 550 anno 1838, Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3164 Service Forestier 3090 Granville, J.J. de et al. 5384 anno 1819-21, Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1401 Suriname, BW 745 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 10981 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1568 Feuillet, C. 2456 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 960 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5713 Mori, S.A., et al. 22354 Alexandre, D.Y. 238 Suriname, Samuels, J.A. s.n. Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 513 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2203 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 34 Guyana, Boom, B.M. et al. 7748 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 506 Sastre, C., et al 3857 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1716 Mori, S.A., et al. 14838 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 761 Suriname, Reijenga, T.W. 549 Suriname, Acevedo Rdgz., P. 5891 Cowan, R.S. 38823 Guyana, Linder, D.H. 94 Guyana, Hoffman, B. 1068 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 261 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 538 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 3433 Granville, J.J. de et al. 12573 Suriname, Evans, R., et al. 2594 Suriname, Doesburg, P.H. van 52 Suriname, Sauvain, M. 360 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 294 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2565 Granville, J.J. de et al. 4506 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55638 Suriname, Webster, G.L. 24107 Guyana, Maguire, B. et al. 23564 Guyana, Bartlett, A.W. 8166 Suriname, Maguire, B. et al. 22727 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 75 Fleury, M. 668 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 1421 Cremers, G. et al. 4958 Suriname, Lanjorin, G. s.n. Suriname, Wullschlaegel, H.R. 455 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1284 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7550 Suriname, LBB 12056 Prévost, M.-F., et al. 4833 Granville, J.J. de et al. 5124 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6309 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6688 Feuillet, C. 2454 anno 1901, Lemée, A. s.n. Suriname, BW 299 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1337 Suriname, Focke, A.C. 771

Inflorescences

Inflorescences ,47
47. 004

Leaves

Leaves opposite, subopposite or whorled (Crossandra), exstipulate, simple, usually with , margins entire, crenate or undulate.48
48. 003

Lectotypifications:

  • Besleria surinamensis Miq.
  • Crossandra undulifolia Salisb.
  • Dipteracanthus canescens Nees
  • Dipteracanthus humilis Nees var. diffusus Nees
  • Dipteracanthus vindex Nees
  • Hygrophila conferta Nees
  • Leptostachya parviflora Nees
  • Leptostachya martiana Nees var. hispida Nees
  • Ruellia blechum L.
  • Staurogyne stolonifera (Nees) Kuntze
  • Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
  • Thunbergia fragrans Roxb.

New combinations:

  • Justicia potarensis (Bremek.) Wassh.
  • Lepidagathis cataractae (Nees) Wassh.
  • Polylychnis radicans (Nees) Wassh.

New name:

  • Justicia coppenamensis Wassh.

New species:

  • Polylychnis ovata Wassh.

New synonyms:

  • Arrhostoxylon rubrum (Aubl.) Nees var. attenuatum to Ruellia rubra Aubl.
  • Arrhostoxylon rubrum (Aubl.) Nees var. glomeruliflorum Bremek. to Ruellia rubra Aubl.
  • Arrhostoxylon rubrum (Aubl.) Nees var. multiflorum Bremek. to Ruellia rubra Aubl.
  • Arrhostoxylon rubrum (Aubl.) Nees var. parviflorum Bremek. to Ruellia rubra Aubl.
  • Arrhostoxylon rubrum (Aubl.) Nees var. pygmaeum Bremek. to Ruellia rubra Aubl.
  • Justicia cayennensis (Nees) Lindau var. parvifolia Bremek. to J. cayennensis (Nees) Lindau
  • Justicia martiana (Nees) Lindau to J. comata (L.) Lam.
  • Justicia parviflora (Nees) Lindau to J. comata (L.) Lam.
  • Justicia schomburgkiana (Nees) V.A.W. Graham to J. sphaerosperma Vahl
  • Lepidagathis surinamensis (Bremek.) Wassh. to L. cataractae (Nees) Wassh.
  • Polylychnis essequibensis Bremek. to P. radicans (Nees) Wassh.
  • Ruellia pipericaulis Rizzini to R. inflata Rich.
  • Ruellia radicans (Nees) Lindau to Polylychnis radicans (Nees) Wassh.
  • Ruellia ventricosa Poir. to R. inflata Rich.
  • Sericographis palustris Nees to Justicia laevilinguis (Nees) Lindau
  • Staurogyne linearifolia Bremek. to S. stolonifera (Nees) Kuntze
  • Stephanophysum cordifolium Mart. ex Nees to Ruellia inflata Rich.
  • Teliostachya coppenamensis Bremek. to Lepidagathis cataractae (Nees) Wassh.

Notes

The genus Mendoncia is sometimes included in the ACANTHACEAE but is placed in the MENDONCIACEAE in this flora.

Wood



In this predominantly herbaceous family Trichanthera is the only genus in the Guianas with a true stem of over 10 cm in diameter. The other genera are mostly low shrubs with stems not exceeding a few cms in diameter. There was no wood available of all of these genera and only 5 out of a total of 24 can be treated here.
Growth rings absent or inconspicuous.
Vessels mostly in radial multiples of 2-4, occasionally more, in diffuse or more or less radial arrangement. Few in Trichanthera, very numerous and narrow in the other genera. Perforations simple. Intervascular pits alternate, very small, slits occasionally confluent; vessel/ray pitting identical or partly large and elongate (Polylychnis, Trichanthera). Tracheids present in the shrubby genera.
Rays 1-4-seriate or exclusively uniseriate (Justicia). Heterogeneous though with few rows of procumbent cells. In Justicia and Polylychnis exclusively square and upright cells (juvenile state). In Polylychnis and Trichanthera a number of cells contain cystoliths, in Trichanthera occasionally a rhombic crystal was also noticed.
Parenchyma almost absent, restricted to a few strands bordering a vessel. Strands often 2-3-celled, up to 6; also undivided, fusiform cells present.
Ground tissue in most genera septate fibres, thin-walled with a wide lumen, in Aphelandra and Justicia septate fibres absent or extremely rare. Pits simple, minute.