Boerhavia diffusa

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Boerhavia diffusa

Content

<<<<Petiole>Blade>Margins>Hairs>Length

to 1 mm long1
1. 003-002-005-002-001

<<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Groove>Texture

smooth2
2. 006-004-001-001

<<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Raphides>Colour

white3
3. 006-004-002-003

<<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Raphides>Raphide number

numerous4
4. 006-004-002-001

<<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Raphides>Shape

linear5
5. 006-004-002-002

<<<Perianth>Ovary>Style>Growth form

recurved6
6. 005-007-003-001

<<<Perianth>Stamens>Filaments>Growth form

recurved7
7. 005-006-002-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Apex>Shape

obtuse to acute8
8. 003-002-003-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Base>Shape

cuneate, truncate or obtuse9
9. 003-002-004-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Lower surfaces>Colour

paler10
10. 003-002-007-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Lower surfaces>Hairs

glabrous or with puberulent veins11
11. 003-002-007-002

<<<Petiole>Blade>Margins>Hairs

ciliate with multicellular, hairs12
12. 003-002-005-002

<<<Petiole>Blade>Margins>Margin type

sometimes undulate, sub-scalloped or sinuate13
13. 003-002-005-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Upper surfaces>Colour

yellowish-green14
14. 003-002-006-001

<<<Petiole>Blade>Upper surfaces>Hairs

glabrous15
15. 003-002-006-002

<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Groove

groove between ribs16
16. 006-004-001

<<Anthocarps>Ribs>Raphides

with , raphides appearing as minute streaks17
17. 006-004-002

<<Anthocarps>Seeds>Length

ca. 2 mm18
18. 006-005-002

<<Anthocarps>Seeds>Shape

narrowly ovoid19
19. 006-005-001

<<Anthocarps>Shape>Dimensions

to 4 x 1.5 mm20
20. 006-001-001

<<Habit>Root system>Shape

fusiform21
21. 001-001-001

<<Habit>Root system>Width

to 1 cm wide22
22. 001-001-002

<<Inflorescences>Bracteoles>Length

0.9-1.7 mm long23
23. 004-007-001

<<Inflorescences>Bracts>Shape

lanceolate, hyaline24
24. 004-005-001

<<Inflorescences>Branches>Hairs

glabrous or glandular-puberulent25
25. 004-004-001

<<Inflorescences>Pedicels>Length

0-0.5 mm long26
26. 004-006-001

<<Perianth>Limbs>Dimensions

ca. 1.3 x 0.5 mm27
27. 005-004-001

<<Perianth>Limbs>Hairs

sometimes puberulent and ciliate28
28. 005-003-003

<<Perianth>Limbs>Lobe number

5-lobed29
29. 005-003-002

<<Perianth>Limbs>Shape

broadly campanulate30
30. 005-003-001

<<Perianth>Lobes>Length

ca. 0.5 mm31
31. 005-005-001

<<Perianth>Ovary>Shape

narrowly ellipsoid32
32. 005-007-001

<<Perianth>Ovary>Stigma

stigma slightly exserted, peltate.33
33. 005-007-004

<<Perianth>Ovary>Style

style ,34
34. 005-007-003

<<Perianth>Ovary>Width

ca. 0.5 mm wide35
35. 005-007-002

<<Perianth>Stamens>Filaments

filaments , united at base;36
36. 005-006-002

<<Perianth>Stamens>Stamen number

1-337
37. 005-006-001

<<Perianth>Tube>Dimensions

0.7-1.0 x 0.5 mm38
38. 005-002-001

<<Perianth>Tube>Rib number

4-5-ribbed39
39. 005-002-002

<<Petiole>Blade>Apex

apex ,40
40. 003-002-003

<<Petiole>Blade>Base

base ,41
41. 003-002-004

<<Petiole>Blade>Dimensions

1.1-6 x 0.8-5 cm42
42. 003-002-002

<<Petiole>Blade>Lower surfaces

lower surface , .43
43. 003-002-007

<<Petiole>Blade>Margins

margin , and ,44
44. 003-002-005

<<Petiole>Blade>Shape

orbicular, rhombic-orbicular or rhombic-ovate on lower part of stem, frequently intergrading to ovate or lanceolate on upper part45
45. 003-002-001

<<Petiole>Blade>Upper surfaces

upper surface , ,46
46. 003-002-006

<Anthocarps>Colour

green47
47. 006-002

<Anthocarps>Rib number

4-5-ribbed48
48. 006-003

<Anthocarps>Ribs

ribs stipitate-glandular, viscous, , ;49
49. 006-004

<Anthocarps>Seeds

seed , , castaneous.50
50. 006-005

<Anthocarps>Shape

narrowly oblanceoloid or subellipsoid, , obtuse51
51. 006-001

<Habit>Root system

taproot woody, , .52
52. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Bracteoles

bracteole .53
53. 004-007

<Inflorescences>Bracts

bracts ;54
54. 004-005

<Inflorescences>Branches

branches , bracteolate at base;55
55. 004-004

<Inflorescences>Flower number per inflorescence

few- to many-flowered56
56. 004-003

<Inflorescences>Length

to 45 cm long57
57. 004-002

<Inflorescences>Pedicels

pedicel ;58
58. 004-006

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal or axillary59
59. 004-001

<Perianth>Colour

red, purplish-red, maroon or purple60
60. 005-001

<Perianth>Limbs

limb including lobes ,61 limb , , ,62
61. 005-004, 62. 005-003

<Perianth>Lobes

lobes ;63
63. 005-005

<Perianth>Ovary

ovary , ,64
64. 005-007

<Perianth>Stamens

stamens , included to slightly exserted,65
65. 005-006

<Perianth>Tube

tube closely adherent to ovary, , , minutely glandular on ribs,66
66. 005-002

<Petiole>Blade

blade , ,67
67. 003-002

<Petiole>Length

to ca. 4.3 cm long68
68. 003-001

<Stems>Growth form

widely spreading69
69. 002-002

<Stems>Hairs

glabrous or puberulent70
70. 002-003

<Stems>Length

to 2 m long71
71. 002-001

Anthocarps

Anthocarp sessile or subsessile, clavate, , , ,72
72. 006

Common Name

English (French Guiana): ipecacuanha de Cayenne

Description

Perennial herb; taproot woody, fusiform, to 1 cm wide. Stem prostrate to decumbent or ascending, to 2 m long, slender, sparsely branched, widely spreading, glabrous or puberulent. Petiole to ca. 4.3 cm long; blade orbicular, rhombic-orbicular or rhombic-ovate on lower part of stem, frequently intergrading to ovate or lanceolate on upper part, 1.1-6 x 0.8-5 cm, apex obtuse to acute, base cuneate, truncate or obtuse, margin sometimes undulate, sub-scalloped or sinuate, and ciliate with multicellular, to 1 mm long hairs, upper surface yellowish-green, glabrous, lower surface paler, glabrous or with puberulent veins. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary, pedunculate, strict or diffusely branched, to 45 cm long panicle, bearing few- to many-flowered subumbellate clusters of subsessile or pedicellate flowers; branches glabrous or glandular-puberulent, bracteolate at base; bracts lanceolate, hyaline; pedicel 0-0.5 mm long; bracteole 0.9-1.7 mm long. Perianth red, purplish-red, maroon or purple, tube closely adherent to ovary, 0.7-1.0 x 0.5 mm, 4-5-ribbed, minutely glandular on ribs, limb broadly campanulate, 5-lobed, sometimes puberulent and ciliate, limb including lobes ca. 1.3 x 0.5 mm, lobes ca. 0.5 mm; stamens 1-3, included to slightly exserted, filaments recurved, united at base; ovary narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 0.5 mm wide, style recurved, stigma slightly exserted, peltate. Anthocarp sessile or subsessile, clavate, narrowly oblanceoloid or subellipsoid, to 4 x 1.5 mm, obtuse, green, 4-5-ribbed, ribs stipitate-glandular, viscous, groove between ribs smooth, with numerouslinear, white raphides appearing as minute streaks; seed narrowly ovoid, ca. 2 mm, castaneous.

Distribution

Guianas present, U.S.A present, pantropical and subtropical present, warm temperate zones such as southern California present
Pantropical and subtropical, sometimes extending to warm temperate zones such as southern California (U.S.A.); 72 collections studied, all from the Guianas (GU: 19; SU: 36; FG: 17).

Habit

Perennial herb;73
73. 001

Individuals Association

Guyana, Rupununi R., Monkey Pond landing, SW of Mt. Makarapan, Maas et al. 7599 Suriname, Experimental Farm Kabo, Saramacca Distr., Everaarts 567 Bac de Mana, Bassin de Basse-Mana, Cremers et al. 10494

Inflorescences

Inflorescence a , pedunculate, strict or diffusely branched, panicle, bearing subumbellate clusters of subsessile or pedicellate flowers;74
74. 004

Notes

Woodson & Schery (1961), in treating this species for the Flora of Panama, observed no tangible taxonomic differences between the two major entities contesting within it for recognition: (1) B. coccinea Mill. (including B. caribaea Jacq.) of the New World (usually described as having inflorescence-branches puberulent; capitula variously designated as 4-20-flowered (by Nicolson, 1991) or 6-12-flowered (by Kellogg, 1988)); and (2) B. diffusa (including B. paniculata) of the Old World (inflorescence-branches glabrous, ebracteate; capitula variously designated as 1-5-flowered (by Nicolson, 1991) or 2-4(-7)-flowered (by Kellogg, 1988)), endemic to Sri Lanka and possibly southern India according to Fosberg (1978). The present authors concur with the disposition by Woodson & Schery (1961) of such variation within a single species, B. diffusa. Such opinion is also in accord with that of Bogle (1974), who referred to the "morphologically variable pantropic weed Boerhavia diffusa L. (incl. B. caribaea Jacq., B. coccinea Mill., B. decumbens Vahl, B. hirsuta Willd., B. paniculata Rich., B. viscosa Lag. & Rodr.)".

Perianth

Perianth ,75
75. 005

Petiole

Petiole ;76
76. 003

Stems

Stem prostrate to decumbent or ascending, , slender, sparsely branched, , .77
77. 002

Uses

French Guiana: Root is emetic and purgative.