Aristolochiaceae

Primary tabs

Aristolochiaceae

<<Flowers>Calyx>Colour

colourful1
1. 003-002-004

<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobe number

3-lobed to 1-lobed or not lobed2 3-lobed3
2. 003-002-003, 3. 003-002-002

<<Flowers>Calyx>Shape

tubular at least below4
4. 003-002-001

<<Flowers>Gynoecium>Carpel number

4-65
5. 003-005-001

<<Flowers>Inflorescences>Position

terminal or lateral6
6. 003-001-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Locule number

4- to 6-locular7
7. 003-006-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Partition number

4-68
8. 003-006-002

<<Flowers>Ovules>Ovule number

numerous9
9. 003-007-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

anthers dithecal and tetrasporangiate, extrorse;10
10. 003-004-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

4-many11
11. 003-004-001

<Flowers>Calyx

calyx synsepalous, , actinomorphic and to zygomorphic and , often large and ;12
12. 003-002

<Flowers>Endosperm

endosperm development cellular.13
13. 003-008

<Flowers>Gynoecium

gynoecium of carpels;14
14. 003-005

<Flowers>Inflorescences

racemes or cymes15
15. 003-001

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary , or with incomplete partitions, placentation axile or parietal;16
16. 003-006

<Flowers>Ovules

ovules , crassinucellar and mostly anatropous;17
17. 003-007

<Flowers>Petals

petals wanting, much reduced or well developed (Saruma);18
18. 003-003

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens ,19
19. 003-004

<Fruits>Embryo

embryo very small, sometimes undifferentiated, basal.20
20. 004-002

<Fruits>Seeds

seeds with abundant, oily endosperm;21
21. 004-001

<Habit>Nodes

nodes 3-lacunar.22
22. 001-002

<Habit>Texture

fleshy23
23. 001-001

<Leaves>Stipules

stipules wanting, a pseudostipule present in the leaf axil in some South American species.24
24. 002-001

Description

Woody or herbaceous vines or less often perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes arising from tubers or from fleshy roots; nodes 3-lacunar. Leaves alternate, simple and mostly entire, sometimes lobed; stipules wanting, a pseudostipule present in the leaf axil in some South American species. Flowers solitary, or in terminal or lateral racemes or cymes, perfect, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, mostly epigynous, otherwise hemi-epigynous or perigynous, often smelling like rotting meat; calyx synsepalous, tubular at least below, actinomorphic and 3-lobed to zygomorphic and 3-lobed to 1-lobed or not lobed, often large and colourful; petals wanting, much reduced or well developed (Saruma); stamens 4-many, anthers dithecal and tetrasporangiate, extrorse; gynoecium of 4-6 carpels; ovary 4- to 6-locular, or with 4-6 incomplete partitions, placentation axile or parietal; ovules numerous, crassinucellar and mostly anatropous; endosperm development cellular. Fruits usually capsular, rarely follicular or indehiscent; seeds with abundant, oily endosperm; embryo very small, sometimes undifferentiated, basal.

Distribution

Guianas present, Neotropics present, Throughout the world in tropical and temperate regions present
Throughout the world in tropical and temperate regions; an estimated 650 species in 6-7 genera (3 monospecific), most of the species (about 550) belong to Aristolochia, and most of the remaining (about 75) to the north temperate genus Asarum; in the Neotropics probably about 250 species in 3 genera; in the Guianas 18 species in one genus.

Flowers

Flowers solitary, or in , perfect, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, mostly epigynous, otherwise hemi-epigynous or perigynous, often smelling like rotting meat;25
25. 003

Fruits

Fruits usually capsular, rarely follicular or indehiscent;26
26. 004

Habit

Woody or herbaceous vines or less often perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes arising from tubers or from roots;27
27. 001

Individuals Association

Feuillet, C. 1565 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 401 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. s.n. Granville, J.J. de (et al.) I 0300 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Mori, S.A. et al. 22953 Moretti, C. 1147 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 705 Feuillet, C. 2330 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2831 Aubert de la Rue, M. s.n. Feuillet, C. 707 Cremers, G. 6455 Feuillet, C. 3004 Foresta, H. de 548 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 1383 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., A.L. Stoffers et al. 370 Prevost, M.F. 604 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6543 Mori, S.A. et al. 21637 Guyana, Persaud, C.A. 121 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4192 Suriname, Stahel, G. & J.W. Gonggrijp BW 6520 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rob. 85 Suriname, Florschiitz, J. & P.A. 893 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rob. II 4 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6916 Suriname, Kegel, H.A.H. 632 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., A.L. Stoffers et al. 617 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rich. 611 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 830 Prevost, M.F. 1353 Poncy, O. 2 Prevost, M.P. & P. Grenand 1491 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6934 Feuillet, C. 2282 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. s.n. Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 10947 Grenand, P. 565 Suriname, Stahel, G. 150 Suriname, BW 6520 Grenand, P. 260 Prevost, M.F. 1753 Anonymous s.n. Moretti, C. 104 Skog, L.E., & C. Feuillet 5675 Suriname, Geijskes, D.C. 70 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4615 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1548 Poncy, O. 3 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 7226 Prevost, M.F. 1113 Jacquemin, H. 1712 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. s.n. Poncy, O. 536 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rich. II 414 Suriname, Focke, H.C. s.n. Mori, S.A. et al. 22965 Suriname, Zaandam, C.J. BW 6632 Mori, S.A. et al. 23347 Benoist, R. 953 Guyana, Hancock, J. s.n. Suriname, Boldingh, I. 3817B Riera, B. 273 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 611 Fleury, M. 537 Sagot, P. s.n. Suriname, Anonymous 44 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rob. I add. ser. 144 S Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 1018 Guyana, Bartlett, A.W. s.n. (anno 1908) Benoist, R. 357 Sagot, P. s.n. Suriname, Kappler, A. 1604 Guyana, Appun, C.F. 288 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6915 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 4058 Foresta, H. de 568 Sagot, P. 1159 Feuillet, C. 1373 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rob. 1679 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1069 Suriname, Stahel, G. 70 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 3440 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 7227 Guyana, Graham, V. 220 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1594 Prevost, M.F. 1770 Prevost, M.F. 1485 Richard, L.C. s.n. Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 1181 Herb. Rudge s.n. Suriname, Boon, H. 1149 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3385 Sastre, C. & D. Bell 8031 Poncy, O. 217 Suriname, BW 3281 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 4184 Suriname, Wullschlagel, H.R. 452 Suriname, Hugh-Jones, D.H. 32 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. s.n. Gabriel, A. s.n. Melinon, E. 428 Rohr, J.P.B. von s.n. Grenand, P. 656 Guyana, Waby, J.F. 8363 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 11703 Grenand, P. & M.F. Prevost 2049 Suriname, Herb. N.J. Jacquin s.n. Cremers, G. 6069 Suriname, Boldingh, I. s.n. Prevost, M.F. 1768 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 136 Lescure, J.P. 374 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 425 Melinon, E. 236 Poncy, O. 987 Mori, S.A. et al. 23966 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 928 Suriname, Vreden, F.E. LBB 11303 Aublet, J.B.C.F. d' s.n. Sastre, C. 6897 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 4530 Feuillet, C. 308 Prevost, M.F. 2154 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 6752 Loubry, D. 2925 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2622 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 10000 Prevost, M.F. 621 Prevost, M.F. 2184 Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. (anno 1839) Prevost, M.P. & P. Grenand 1941 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 7968 Leprieur, F.R.M. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. s.n. Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1945 Richard, L.C. s.n. Jacquemin, H. 2180 Feuillet, C. 2103 Guyana, Schomburgk, Rich. or Rob.? 114 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 4592 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. 1945 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 682 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 13173 Jacquemin, H. 2605 Guyana, Persaud, C.A. 33 Suriname, BW 6632 Melinon, E. 381 Benoist, R. 891 Guyana, Acevedo, P. 3308 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. et al. 869 Suriname, Splitgerber, F.L. s.n. Sastre, C. 5698 Mori, S.A. et al. 22251 Cremers, G. & F. Crozier 14677 Moretti, C. 993 Aubreville, A. 89 Guyana, Feuillet, C. 10642

Leaves

Leaves alternate, simple and mostly entire, sometimes lobed;28
28. 002

New synonyms:

  • Aristolochia platyloba Garcke, Linnaea 22: 69. 1849 = Aristolochia surinamensis Willdenow
  • Aristolochia macrota Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, 2: 43. 1854 = Aristolochia surinamensis Willdenow

Phenology

The flowers are usually pollinated by flies attracted by the strong smell of the flowers.

Typifications:

  • Aristolochia macrota Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, 2: 43. 1854. Lectotype here designated: Rob. Schomburgk I 679 (lectotype G-DC, photo, F, US, isotypes BM, F, K (2 sheets), US).
  • Aristolochia rodriguesii Hoehne, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 20(1): 76 (140), tab. 72. 1927. Lectotype here designated: Brazil, Ule 9338 (lectotype MG).
  • Howardia schomburgkii Klotzsch, Monatsber. Konigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 613. 1859. Neotype here proposed: Guyana. Pirara, Rich. Schomburgk II 414 (holotype P, isotype BM, K).
  • Aristolochia weddellii Duchartre subsp. rondoniana Hoehne, Arch. Bot. Est. Sao Paulo 1(1): 19, tab. 8. 1925. Lectotype here designated: Brazil, Comm. Rondon 2445 (lectotype SP, isotype RB).