Sapindaceae

Primary tabs

Sapindaceae

Content

<<<<Flowers>Petal appendages>Shape>Crests>Texture

fleshy1
1. 006-003-001-001-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Carpels>Carpel number

(2)3(-5)2
2. 006-006-001-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Carpels>Shape

connate3
3. 006-006-001-002

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma>Shape

elongated or capitate4
4. 006-006-004-001

<<<Flowers>Petal appendages>Shape>Crests

crest5
5. 006-003-001-001

<<<Flowers>Placenta>Ovules>Ovule number per locule

1 or less often 2(-8) per locule6
6. 006-007-001-001

<<<Inflorescences>Thyrses>Cymes>Arrangement

dichasial or cincinnal7
7. 005-002-002-002

<<<Inflorescences>Thyrses>Cymes>Position

lateral8
8. 005-002-002-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Carpels

carpels9
9. 006-006-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Locule number

usually with same number of locules as carpels10
10. 006-006-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma

the stigmas ;11
11. 006-006-004

<<Flowers>Ovary>Style

the style usually present,12
12. 006-006-003

<<Flowers>Petal appendages>Hairs

variously pubescent13
13. 006-003-002

<<Flowers>Petal appendages>Shape

petaloid, simple, bifurcate, or hood-shaped with a14
14. 006-003-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Appendages

with an adnate appendage on their adaxial surface15
15. 006-002-003

<<Flowers>Petals>Colour

usually white or cream16
16. 006-002-002

<<Flowers>Petals>Petal number

4-517
17. 006-002-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Shape

auriculate (conduplicate basal margins)18
18. 006-002-004

<<Flowers>Placenta>Ovules

ovules .19
19. 006-007-001

<<Flowers>Sepals>Sepal number

4-520
20. 006-001-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

the anthers dorsifixed or basifixed, introrsely opening by longitudinal slits;21
21. 006-005-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

the filaments equal or unequal in length, free or connate at base,22
22. 006-005-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

(4-7) 8 (10)23
23. 006-005-001

<<Inflorescences>Peduncle>Bracts and bracteoles

bracts and bracteoles usually inconspicuous24
24. 005-003-002

<<Inflorescences>Peduncle>Shape

angled to terete25
25. 005-003-001

<<Inflorescences>Thyrses>Cymes

cymes26
26. 005-002-002

<<Inflorescences>Thyrses>Shape

racemose, paniculate, or spicate27
27. 005-002-001

<<Seeds>Testa>Texture

fleshy28
28. 008-002-001

<<Stems>Latex>Colour

white29
29. 002-001-001

<Flowers>Disk

disc extrastaminal, annular or unilateral, entire or lobed;30
30. 006-004

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary superior, of , ,31
31. 006-006

<Flowers>Petal appendages

petal’s appendage , ;32
32. 006-003

<Flowers>Petals

petals , rarely wanting, distinct, , , or the petals ;33
33. 006-002

<Flowers>Placenta

placentation axial,34
34. 006-007

<Flowers>Sepals

sepals , distinct or connate to various degrees;35
35. 006-001

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens ,36
36. 006-005

<Inflorescences>Pedicels

pedicels usually articulate near the base.37
37. 005-004

<Inflorescences>Peduncle

peduncles , ;38
38. 005-003

<Inflorescences>Position

axillary (usually solitary), distal, or cauliflorous (usually fascicled)39
39. 005-001

<Inflorescences>Thyrses

thyrses, with40
40. 005-002

<Leaves>Arrangement

alternate, spirally arranged, or rarely opposite41
41. 004-001

<Leaves>Rachises

leaf rachis of most arborescent species with a distal process (rudimentary leaflet).42
42. 004-002

<Seeds>Seed number per locule

usually one per locule, or less often two43
43. 008-001

<Seeds>Testa

with a testa44
44. 008-002

<Stems>Latex

, milky latex45
45. 002-001

Acknowledgements

This publication was made possible through the collaboration of numerous colleagues and by the financial support of the Smithsonian Institution. At the Smithsonian, Mark T. Strong coordinated numerous tasks such as requesting loans and keeping track of them, proofreading various drafts of the manuscript, and for converting several slide pictures of type specimens into electronic format; Katherine Rankin helped to expedite the mounting of hundreds of new collections and therefore making them available for this study; Sara Alexander and Marilyn Hansel inventoried all collections studied; Christian Feuillet for translating various French text into English, and for his help with various French Guiana localities. Curators of the following herbaria made loans or allowed access to their rich holdings of Sapindaceae from the Guianas: B, BBS, BM, CAY, K, L, MO, NY, P, L, WIS. Thanks to the CAY personnel who answered numerous questions regarding French Guiana localities and for their hospitality during various visits to this French territory. Particularly to Marie Francoise Prévost (who in addition sent numerous field images of Sapindaceae), Jean-Jacques de Granville, Francoise Crozier, Sophie Gonzalez, and Veronique Guerin. During my visit to Kew Botanical Gardens, Nicky Briggs helped locate some of their collections of Sapindaceae, and on various occasions provided me with images of their type collections. Bobbi Angell from the New York Botanical Garden, made numerous precise and beautiful illustrations for this volume, or made available images done for previous projects. Scott A. Mori from the New York Botanical Garden for sending numerous pictures of Sapindaceae and for allowing the use line drawings prepared for his Flora of Central French Guiana publication. I also benefited from discussions with Genise V. Somner regarding the delimitation of various species of Paullinia and Serjania.
The following funds within the Smithsonian institution funded part of this project. These include: the Walcott Fund at the Department of Botany for funding several botanical illustrations. The Neotropical Lowland Fund and the Small Grant Programs for funding a visit to French Guiana; and finally, the Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program for supporting some of the fieldwork and collection related logistics.

Description

Trees, shrubs, lianas, or less often herbaceous vines. Stems of climbing species usually with multiple vascular cylinders, and very often with white, milky latex. Stipules minute to large, present only in climbing species. Leaves pinnately or ternately compound, rarely simple or unifoliolate, alternate, spirally arranged, or rarely opposite; leaf rachis of most arborescent species with a distal process (rudimentary leaflet). Inflorescence axillary (usually solitary), distal, or cauliflorous (usually fascicled), racemose, paniculate, or spicate thyrses, with lateraldichasial or cincinnal cymes; peduncles angled to terete, bracts and bracteoles usually inconspicuous; pedicels usually articulate near the base. Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, seemingly bisexual but functionally unisexual, plants dichogamous, monoecious, or dioecious; sepals 4-5, distinct or connate to various degrees; petals 4-5, rarely wanting, distinct, usually white or cream, with an adnate appendage on their adaxial surface, or the petals auriculate (conduplicate basal margins); petal’s appendage petaloid, simple, bifurcate, or hood-shaped with a fleshy crest, variously pubescent; disc extrastaminal, annular or unilateral, entire or lobed; stamens (4-7) 8 (10), the filaments equal or unequal in length, free or connate at base, the anthers dorsifixed or basifixed, introrsely opening by longitudinal slits; ovary superior, of (2)3(-5)connate carpels, usually with same number of locules as carpels, the style usually present, the stigmas elongated or capitate; placentation axial, ovules 1 or less often 2(-8) per locule. Fruits capsules, schizocarps, or indehiscent and baccate, winged or unwinged, sometimes echinate. Seeds usually one per locule, or less often two, exarillate, arillate, or with a fleshy testa.

Distribution

Guianas present, Neotropics present, subtemperate zones present, subtropical present, tropical present
One hundred and forty one genera and about 2,000 species, mostly tropical or subtropical with a few genera in the subtemperate zones; in the Neotropics 38 genera and about 800 species, in the Guianas 22 genera and 114 species (115 taxa).

Epitypes:

  • Cupania americana L.
  • Vouarana guianensis Aubl.

Flowers

Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, seemingly bisexual but functionally unisexual, plants dichogamous, monoecious, or dioecious;46
46. 006

Fruits

Fruits capsules, schizocarps, or indehiscent and baccate, winged or unwinged, sometimes echinate.47
47. 007

Habit

Trees, shrubs, lianas, or less often herbaceous vines.48
48. 001

Individuals Association

Oldeman, R.A.A. T-285 Mori, S.A., et al. 23857 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2218 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11120 Bordenave, B. 7959 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4925 Loubry, D. 2382 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 371 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 4883 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4943 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3401 Suriname, Sastre, C., et al. 4144 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 490 Melinon, M. 47 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 9577 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 2112 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 301 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5840 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2641 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 10319 Suriname, Jongkind, C. 16843 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 3362 Suriname, Gonggrijp, J.W. 2170 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2885 Guyana, Chanderbali, A. & D. Gopaul 56 Granville, J.J. de, et al. T-1155 Blanc, P. 91 Guyana, Forest Dept. 5355 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 4579 Melinon, M. 357 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4816 Fleury, M. 399 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3223 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 10630 Mori, S.A., et al. 15392 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2202 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12343 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12344 Oldeman, R.A.A. 266 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 626 Guyana, Redden, K.M., et al. 2603 Guyana, Appun, C.F. 1295 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2068 Wachenheim, G. 247 Hequet, V. 604 Granville, J.J. de, et al. T-1065 Maas, P.J.M., et al. 2208 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4823 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 807 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5919 Sagot, P.A. 1194 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2972 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2885 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4824 Suriname, Wullschlägel, H.R. 1392 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-371 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 14739 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5337 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2640 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 649 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-151 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2369 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. 2751 Guyana, Forest Dept. 7305 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5216 Foresta, H.F. de 341 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4826 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3469 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 4625 Suriname, Clarke, H.D. & J. Rhodes 11245 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1685 Prévost, M.F., et al. 4055 Sagot, P.A. s.n. Prévost, M.F., et al. 2978 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4183 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4868 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 387 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4872 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 3734 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11123 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12335 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 8676 Mori, S.A., et al. 24301 Mori, S.A., et al. 23979 Guyana, Mori, S.A., et al. 24577 Prévost, M.F., et al. 2976 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2824 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 418 Suriname, Hulk, J.F. 373 Toriola- Marbot, D. 1198 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 659 Suriname, Andel, T. van, et al. 1030 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 2244 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 538 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 669 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3537 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-550 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2566 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 3738 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4267 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2440 Mori, S.A., et al. 21151 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 690 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 6023 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4875 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4863 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2491 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 1866 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. 2577 Fournet, A. 71 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24341 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3652 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 268 Sagot, P.A. 1380 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2829 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2141 Suriname, Zaandam, C. 6705 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5463 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2955 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3479 Suriname, Focke, H.C. s.n. Suriname, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 10695 Suriname, Clarke, H.D. & J. Rhodes 11300 Deward, G. 242 Prévost, M.F., et al. 2058 Suriname, Bordenave, B., et al. 8627 Guyana, Redden, K.M., et al. 2947 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3510 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2194 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 501 Guyana, Tillet, S.S., et al. 45080 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1529 Deward, G. 136 Veth, B. 73 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7840 Martin, J. s.n. Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 232 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4921 Riera, B. 1884 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 1122 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. FD 5611 Barrier, S., et al. 2842 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 462 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 3773 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 821 Sastre, C., et al. 5665 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12345 Mori, S.A., et al. 25041 Guyana, Mutchnick, P., et al. 1301 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2701 Mori, S.A., et al. 25555 Granville, J.J. de, et al. C-40 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10073 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4823 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3658 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 7122 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 10668 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5983 Fleury, M. 247 Suriname, Daniëls, A.G.H. & F.P. Jonker 1339 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3296 Mori, S.A., et al. 25690 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 1136 Mori, S.A., et al. 15027 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5259 Guyana, Harris, E.M., et al. 1165 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12359 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4940 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2497 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2856 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10480 Martin, J. 444 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2453 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2915 Audouy s.n. Granville, J.J. de, et al. 16866 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3361 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 251 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5779 Oldeman, R.A.A. 5310 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 5692 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4314 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24690 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 3734 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2197 Suriname, Splitgerber, F.L. 1099 Cremers, G.C., et al. 11840 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 493 Lemoine, M. 7887 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4652 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 1982 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 72 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 6988 Loubry, D. 1856 Grenand, P. 1254 Lescure, J.P. 788 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2378 Barrier, S., et al. 4200 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1797 Suriname, Maguire, B. 23812 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4016 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4873 Feuillet, C., et al. 1046 Sagot, P.A. 1000 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2223 Mori, S.A., et al. 18769 Halle, F. 668 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 167 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11125 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1254 Cremers, G.C., et al. 7967 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 451 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3410 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7276 Suriname, Hammel, B.E., et al. 21279 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 940 Croat, T. 74200 Guyana, Wilson-Browne, G. 471 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 555 Jacquemin, H. 1826 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 738 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2587 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Molino, J.-F., et al. 1616 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12329 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 7789 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 19883 Loubry, D. 1956 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2192 Grenand, P. 917 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4797 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1922 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4010 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4904 Boom, B.M. & S.A. Mori 1633 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A Hekking 3112 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2261 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6079 Fleury, M. 758 Deward, G. 129 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5393 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5202 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 23556 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 3A Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1818 Oldeman, R.A.A. 301 Jacquemin, H. 1862 Guyana, Tillet, S.S., et al. 43919 Suriname, Meyer & Sanches 274 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 1630 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 9347 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 526 Suriname, Kappler, A. 744 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 405 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4350 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2022 Suriname, Budelman, A. 851 Suriname, Plotkin, M.J. & F. van Troon 1035 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 3599 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 1110 Riera, B. 1459 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 955 Suriname, Derveld & Apungkosho 1409 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 4804 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 4851 Mori, S.A., et al. 22901 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7384 Mori, S.A., et al. 18951 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 6285 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4879 Prévost, M.F., et al. 2356 Grenand, P. 1208 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 202 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 1538 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2246 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2979 Mori, S.A., et al. 25693 Prévost, M.F., et al. 4424 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24152 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4631 Poiteau, P.A. Suriname, Baraloto, C., et al. 4095 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4443 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1007 Suriname, Granville, J.J. de B-4550 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3481 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 5530 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3293 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5838 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 459 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3635 Suriname, Hekking, W.H.A. 1005 Melinon, M. 383 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1037 Feuillet, C., et al. 10295 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2383 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2949 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 13625 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 2574 Suriname, Archer, W.A. 2688 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3459 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 23510 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 6737 Jacquemin, H. 1889 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 1687 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 1927 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 4844 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8379 Bordenave, B. 143 Suriname, Bordenave, B., et al. 8578 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 54929 Prévost, M.F., et al. 938 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3426 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1898 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 414 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 803 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1689 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 7517 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5240 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 3503 Cremers, G.C., et al. 11313 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1085 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2290 Feuillet, C., et al. 3560 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11117 Mori, S.A., et al. 14926 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 3745 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2216 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 8976 Fleury, M. 324 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2761 Loubry, D. 1154 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 4457 Suriname, Roberts, L., et al. 14806 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 7500 Mori, S.A., et al. 24274 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 5076 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1601 Grenand, P. 1469 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3556 Melinon, M. 389 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 678 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3512 Molino, J.-F., et al. 2001 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12378 Sastre, C., et al. 309 Guyana, Polak, A.M., et al. 524 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1944 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4241 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1428 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3269 Mori, S.A., et al. 24774 Guyana, Mori, S.A., et al. 24561 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 1702 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2240 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1026 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 105 Suriname, Plotkin, M.J. & F. van Troon 1100 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3384 Lucas, E. & C. Pérez 109 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 16727 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 6053 Leprieur, F.M.R. 331 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2661 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 55357 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-208 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3577 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3391 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 6814 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1836 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1731 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 32376 Moretti, C. 1211 Sastre, C., et al. 5730 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2610 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7108 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 3266 Suriname, Maguire, B. 40762 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 537 Richard, L.C.M. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1265 Poncy, O., et al. 1869 Guyana, Steege, H. ter, et al. 562 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2329 Suriname, Plotkin, M.J. & F. van Troon 1026 Suriname, Teunissen, P.A. 15854 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 55046 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1812 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3793 Richard, L.C.M. Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4992 Foresta, H.F. de 146 Suriname, Andel, T. van, et al. 4485 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 437 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2046 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3462 Suriname, Clarke, H.D. & J. Rhodes 11047 Guyana, Mutchnick, P., et al. 1440 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2202 Sagot, P.A. 82 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 720 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4914 Loubry, D. 1403 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4136 Suriname, Sang, T.L. 14836 Suriname, Sauvain, M. & W. Vernon 406 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-471 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 10818 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3047 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2105 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3848 Hoff, M. 5979 Suriname, Plotkin, M.J. & F. van Troon 1038 Suriname, Versteeg, G.M. 674 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4844 Suriname, Troon, F. van, et al 16473 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 6230 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1250 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5006 Prévost, M.F., et al. 2136 Jacquemin, H. 1811 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2651 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3095 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3496 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 835 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 7256 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2955 Sastre, C., et al. 3850 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7407 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., et al. 87 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6093 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1587 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2931 Guyana, Wilson-Browne, G. 508 Suriname, Bordenave, B., et al. 8507 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5754 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 6065 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4996 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3471 Suriname, Smith, A.C. 2906 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 3556 Sastre, C., et al. 8222 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 4626 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 218 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4888 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12342 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3253 Guyana, Andel, T.R. van, et al. 1564 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 803 Prévost, M.F., et al. 887 Wachenheim, G. s.n. Cremers, G.C., et al. 7757 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 567 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4890 Suriname, Bordenave, B., et al. 8183 Aubreville, A. 176 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2598 Mori, S.A., et al. 15138 Suriname, Miller, J.S., et al. 9245 Suriname, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 6191 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4911 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 3964 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2290 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4842 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3695 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 9879 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2470 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3741 Suriname, Archer, W.A. 2749 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3828 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 382 Guyana, Schomburgk, M.R. 1291 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 2885 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 1648 Suriname, Rombouts, H.E. 792 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2203 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5935 Poncy, O., et al. 556 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2382 Poncy, O., et al. 882 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2542 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4157 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1405 Suriname, Boon, H.A. 1056 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2976 Barrier, S., et al. 4263 Suriname, Mori, S.A. & A. Bolten 8423 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1750 Guyana, Boom, B.M. 7161 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 1959 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3316 Guyana, Mori, S.A., et al. 8121 Molino, J.-F., et al. 2072 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 13487 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 1982 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4843 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-368 Suriname, Miquel, F.A.W. 10450 Mori, S.A., et al. 25686 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 1215 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 3833 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24797 Cremers, G.C., et al. 14113 Suriname, Stahel, G. 321 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4922 Suriname, Archer, W.A. 2914 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. FD 6872 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 7902 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 764 Molino, J.-F., et al. 1322 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4222 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2781 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 366 Richard, L.C.M. s.n. Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1261 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2070 Grenand, P. 364 Feuillet, C., et al. 10087 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 502 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 1035 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2320 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4828 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 180 Loubry, D. 609 Villiers, J.-F. 2020 Guyana, Harris, E.M., et al. 1092 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7033 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1194 Suriname, Hammel, B.E., et al. 21299 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 5723 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1133 Guyana, Stoffers, A.L., et al. 141 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 6512 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 234 Halle, F. 720 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4905 Barrier, S., et al. 2589 Suriname, Ruysschaert, S. 1022 Suriname, Splitgerber, F.L. 99 Sagot, P.A. 1047 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2411 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 2121 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7312 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5463 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.C. de Roon 920 Sastre, C., et al. 6288 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2287 Fleury, M. 705 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 23384 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1754 Guyana, Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A., et al. 492 Suriname, Sterringa, J.T. 12388 Sastre, C., et al. 4615 Guyana, Pinkus, A.S. 232 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3314 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2242 Suriname, Bhikhi, R., et al. 347 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 781 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1240 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5235 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2348 Guyana, Boom, B.M. 8057 Loubry, D. 2322 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 316 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 2915 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4180 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 759 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 827 Lescure, J.P. 6 Suriname, Elburg, J.P. 13538 Suriname, Mori, S.A. & A. Bolten 8562 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 387 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24875 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3475 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5320 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8073 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4712 Oldeman, R.A.A. 195 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3325 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A Hekking 3057 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4731 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3803 Guyana, Guppy, N.G.L. 361 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 3423 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Cremers, G.C., et al. 12413 Suriname, Teunissen, P.A. 14466 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 1901 Zhang, S.Y. 18 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 240 Mori, S.A., et al. 15235 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 715 Poncy, O., et al. 1019 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 4497 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2628 Melinon, M. 370 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5277 Melinon, M. 188 Suriname, Hammel, B.E., et al. 21277 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5413 Suriname, Florschütz, P.A. 2181 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 576 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 6445 Skog, L.E. & C. Feuillet 7520 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5625 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 881 Bourdy, G. 2950 Schnell, R.A.A. 11338 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2906 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2519 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5433 Guyana, Redden, K.M., et al. 5108 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1176 Cremers, G.C., et al. 13625 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1360 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 396 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1998 Wachenheim, G. s.n. Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A Hekking 2835 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 1274 Suriname, Roberts, L., et al. 16313 Suriname, Andel, T. van, et al. 4667 Suriname, Hammel, B.E., et al. 21718 Suriname, Kappler, A. 2131 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 5367 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 4930 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2306 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 536 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 830 Prévost, M.F., et al. 1935 Melinon, M. 281 Sagot, P.A. s.n. Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 388 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 286 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 6516 Leprieur, F.M.R. 335 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 7574 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1572 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 13184 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3458 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1716 Suriname, Kappler, A. 1674 Moretti, C. 659 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 4891 Suriname, Stahel, G. 38 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3201 Cremers, G.C., et al. 7675 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 213 Mori, S.A., et al. 20822 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4367 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2286 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1187 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1949 Martin, J. s.n. Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 1348 Deward, G. 139 Fleury, M. 377 Barrier, S., et al. 3895 Melinon, M. 91 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4465 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3567 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 679 Suriname, Jiménes-Saa, J.H. 1571 Suriname, Bhikhi, R., et al. 727 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 39387 Hoff, M. 6362 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 137 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 8254 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 2835 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 7321 Broadway, W.E. 143 Guyana, Schomburgk, M.R. 505 Guyana, Clarke, H.D., et al. 8580 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 812 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 486 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3447 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10833 Fleury, M. 763 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 861 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A Hekking 2836 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 734 Suriname, Maguire, B. 23613 Feuillet, C., et al. 21 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2319 Suriname, Stahel, G. 224 Wachenheim, G. 371 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-703 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 736 Prévost, M.F., et al. 4638 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1974 Prévost, M.F., et al. 184 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 54578 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1686 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12374 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 6088 Cremers, G.C., et al. 5088 Suriname, Troon, F. van, et al 16311 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 4880 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3320 Suriname, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 6436 Veth, B. 83 Richard, L.C.M. s.n. Suriname, Mitro, S. & J.H. Meyer 124 Schnell, R.A.A. 11337 Wachenheim, G. 66 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 8887 Delprete, P. 8098 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 231 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2711 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11122 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3966 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2843 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 2015 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1248 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 4122 Sagot, P.A. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. 2671 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3456 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 54936 Geay, M.F. 852 Cremers, G.C., et al. 12412 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. F-1705 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-32 Suriname, Jongkind, C. 17120 Larpin, D. 990 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 3989 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2035 Guyana, Hill, S. R. & C.N. Horn 27085 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5780 Suriname, Kerckhove, K. van de 126 Suriname, Sterringa, J.T. 12458 Guyana, Little, E.L. 16704 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2677 Mori, S.A., et al. 19144 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F., et al. 438 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10582 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1732 Skog, L.E. & C. Feuillet 7386 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3504 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 1634 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2669 Guyana, Davis, D.H. 359 Deward, G. 105 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1762 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4981 Grenand, P. 1140 Barrier, S., et al. 2658 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 4319 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5306 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4987 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 137 Guyana, Tillet, S.S., et al. 45157 Mori, S.A., et al. 22940 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4703 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3499 Guyana, Taylor, P.G., et al. 12081 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12375 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3327 Cremers, G.C., et al. 6673 Beekman, F. 54 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4008 Suriname, Andel, T. van, et al. 4500 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-662 Granville, J.J. de, et al. C-54 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3848 Prévost, M.F., et al. 1006 Suriname, Clarke, H.D. & J. Rhodes 11328 Poncy, O., et al. 1817 Sagot, P.A. 1036 Suriname, Andel, T. van, et al. 4520 Mori, S.A., et al. 25304 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5955 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 512 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Mori, S.A., et al. 23894 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 4765 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-483 Melinon, M. 137 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 12901 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 5956 Mori, S.A., et al. 18673 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2327 Prévost, M.F., et al. 3319 Hequet, V. 281 Guyana, Abraham, A.A. 219 Hoff, M. 7280 Poiteau, P.A. Prévost, M.F., et al. 1987 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12328 Cremers, G.C., et al. 5310 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1530 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 5313 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2462 Bordenave, B. 832 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 3049 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-216 Mori, S.A., et al. 22955 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24708 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 3758 Guyana, Guppy, N.G.L. 674 Mori, S.A., et al. 8916 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3365 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 2174 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4885 Fleury, M. 173 Feuillet, C., et al. 2885 Moretti, C. 588 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1883 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 1895 Suriname, Teunissen, P.A. 12601 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 323 Suriname, Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 7142 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3418 Descoings, B. & C. Luu 20399 Suriname, Plotkin, M.J. & F. van Troon 628 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3843 Guyana, Ursem, W.N. & J.M. Potters 32 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 859 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 6022 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 2081 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 1000 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2692 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 3202 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. BG-17 Loubry, D. 2376 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 388 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5028 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 26 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 102 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2346 Mori, S.A., et al. 8914 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3528 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-4094 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 859 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 522 Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2329 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 3538 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1052 Suriname, Wessels Boer, J.G. 3227 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1068 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 3904 Blanc, P. & P. Birnbaum BB-93-71 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 2102 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 2411 Moretti, C. 1252 Schäfer, P.A. 9221 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 233 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 812 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3433 Guyana, Hollowell, T., et al. 735 Guyana, Mori, S.A., et al. 8076 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3924 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 968 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 55885 Hequet, V. 268 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 2774 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-5275 Suriname, Stahel, G. 110 Sastre, C., et al. 305 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 1265 Suriname, Went, F.A.F.C. 442 Guyana, Irwin, H.S. 245 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-544 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4983 Rothery, H.C. 157 Suriname, Irwin, H.S., et al. 55614 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 11348 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 133 Guyana, Schomburgk, M.R. 1351 Wachenheim, G. s.n. Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 3762 Mori, S.A., et al. 21608 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2594a Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5031 Suriname, Granville, J.J. de B-4541 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 10563 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 110 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11103 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 3015 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 406 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 336 Melinon, M. 59 Grenand, P. 1523 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3242 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3771 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 6062 Grenand, P. 1703 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5904 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 1260 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4889 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3444 Suriname, Mitro, S. & J.H. Meyer 212 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8387 Suriname, Koemar, S., et al. 8 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 5469 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 3954 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3858 Mori, S.A., et al. 14752 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2055 Pérez, C. 904 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 6091 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4960 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2022 Guyana, Ek, R.C., et al. 809 Cremers, G.C., et al. 4689 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 183 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 1134 Mori, S.A., et al. 22771 Mori, S.A., et al. 17937 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1113 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Guyana, Archer, W.A. 2309 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4857 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3106 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2270 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 11116 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 4092 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-238 Poncy, O., et al. 1064 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5903 Capus, F. 169 Guyana, Schomburgk, R.H. 758 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 5556 Bordenave, B. 836 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 4264 Mori, S.A., et al. 14988 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 426 Boom, B.M. & S.A. Mori 2379 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5356 Mori, S.A., et al. 15533 Suriname, Evans, R.J., et al. 3435 Sastre, C., et al. 5916 Richard, L.C.M. s.n. Cremers, G.C., et al. 5118 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 3965 Suriname, Jiménes-Saa, J.H. 1503 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 10250 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 4048 Suriname, Cowan, R.S. 38983 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17129 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2287 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 12370 Guyana, Mutchnick, P., et al. 808 Fleury, M. 958 Guyana, Schomburgk, M.R. 986 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17290 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4927 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1788 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 129 Guyana, Mutchnick, P., et al. 45 Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 4861 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 7899 Mori, S.A., et al. 24736 Suriname, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 5824 Suriname, Focke, H.C. 300 Villiers, J.-F. 2010 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 4963 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 2502 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2523 Wachenheim, G. 308 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 357 Guyana, Hahn, W.J., et al. 5624 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-3795 Fleury, M. 100 Granville, J.J. de, et al. B-4683 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1403 Guyana, Andel, T.R. van, et al. 1140 Guyana, Forest Dept. 6966 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1348 Guyana, Acevedo-Rdgz., P., et al. 3346 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1412 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 4239 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2857 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 2441a Guyana, Mori, S.A., et al. 24619 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 3348 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C., et al. 212 Granville, J.J. de, et al. 12752 Suriname, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 6257 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 3603 Guyana, Clarke, H.D. 203 Sabatier, D.R.L., et al. 832 Moretti, C. 805 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 1243 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2718 Aubreville, A. 322 Feuillet, C., et al. 255 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1821 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 5060 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2528 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 498 Moretti, C. 971 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 788 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., et al. 310 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W.R. 596 Suriname, Hoffman, B., et al. 5200

Inflorescences

Inflorescence , ;49
49. 005

Leaves

Leaves pinnately or ternately compound, rarely simple or unifoliolate, ;50
50. 004

Lectotypifications:

  • Allophylus acutatus Radlk.
  • Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. & al.) Hieron. ex Niederlein
  • Allophylus edulis (St. Hil. et al.) Hieron. var. gracilis Radlk.
  • Allophylus occidentalis f. mollis Radlk.
  • Cardiospermum acuminatum Miq.
  • Cupania hirsuta Radlk.
  • Cupania macrostylis (Radlk.) Acev.-Rodr.
  • Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.
  • Matayba camptoneura Radlk.
  • Matayba guianensis Aubl. f. genuina Radlk. subf. subovalis Radlk.
  • Matayba inelegans Radlk.
  • Matayba laevigata Radlk.
  • Matayba macrolepis Radlk.
  • Matayba opaca Radlk.
  • Matayba stenodictya Radlk.
  • Porocystis toulicioides Radlk.
  • Paullinia caloptera Radlk.
  • Paullinia dasygonia Radlk.
  • Paullinia fasciculata Radlk.
  • Paullinia fuscescens f. intermedia Radlk.
  • Paullinia grandifolia Benth. ex Radlk.
  • Paullinia imberbis Radlk.
  • Paullinia latifolia Benth. ex Radlk.
  • Paullinia micropterygia Miq.
  • Paullinia neuroptera Radlk.
  • Paullinia rugosa Benth. ex Radlk.
  • Paullinia subnuda Radlk.
  • Paullinia venosa Radlk.
  • Pentascyphus thyrsiflorus Radlk.
  • Serjania grandifolia Sagot ex Radlk.
  • Serjania oblongifolia Radlk.
  • Serjania pedicellaris Radlk.
  • Toulicia crassifolia Radlk.

Neotype:

  • Paullinia xestophylla Radlk.

Novelties:

  • Cupania macrostylis (Radlk.) Acev.-Rodr., comb. nov.
  • Matayba peruviana Radlk. subsp. oligandra (Sandwith) T.D. Penn. ex Acev.-Rodr., comb & stat. nov.
  • Paullinia rubiginosa Cambess. subsp. setosa (Radlk.) Acev.-Rodr., stat. nov.

Seeds

Seeds , exarillate, arillate, or .51
51. 008

Stems

Stems of climbing species usually with multiple vascular cylinders, and very often with .52
52. 002

Stipules

Stipules minute to large, present only in climbing species.53
53. 003

Taxonomic changes

(bold indicate accepted taxa)

Uses

Sapindaceae is the source of numerous products, some of which are economically important. These include edible fruits such as litchi (Litchi sinensis), longan (Dimocarpus longan), keneep or genip (Melicoccus bijugatus), wild genip, pitomba (M. oliviformis) and ackee (Blighia sapida) all of which are cultivated in the Guianas. Numerous species of Paullinia have been reported to be useful in the preparation of medicines, caffeine-rich beverages, binding and weaving material, and for fish, human and arrow poisoning (Beck 1990). The seeds of Paullinia cupana are the source of the important Brazilian crop guaraná, a source of caffeine and flavoring of soft drinks. Almost all Sapindaceae are used around the tropics for fish poisoning (Radlkofer 1886; Acevedo-Rodríguez 1990). Species of Cupania, Euphorianthus, Harpullia, Schleichera, and Talisia are sometimes used for timber, among these, the Morabali (Talisia squarrosa) is an important timber tree in Guyana. Numerous genera are grown as ornamentals, in tropical and temperate areas, including species of Acer, Arfeuillea, Allophylus, Cardiospermum, Filicium, Harpullia, Koelreuteria, Sapindus, and Xanthoceras.