Cyrillaceae

Primary tabs

Cyrillaceae

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Ovule number

1-31
1. 004-005-004-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Position

pendulous2
2. 004-005-004-002

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma>Lobe number

1-3(-4)-lobed3
3. 004-005-003-001

<<<Flowers>Sepals and petals>Petals>Colour

white to pink4
4. 004-002-002-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers>Locule number

2-locular5
5. 004-003-004-001

<<<Leaves>Blade>Margins>Margin type

entire6
6. 002-003-002-001

<<<Leaves>Blade>Margins>Texture

often coriaceous7
7. 002-003-002-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Locule number

2-5-locular8
8. 004-005-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules

ovules per locule, , anatropous.9
9. 004-005-004

<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma

stigma entire or ,10
10. 004-005-003

<<Flowers>Ovary>Style

style usually short,11
11. 004-005-002

<<Flowers>Sepals and petals>Petals

petals , usually with inrolled margins;12
12. 004-002-002

<<Flowers>Sepals and petals>Sepals

sepals persistent,13
13. 004-002-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

anthers , opening by apical pores or longitudinal slits, versatile;14
14. 004-003-004

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments free,15
15. 004-003-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

5 or 1016
16. 004-003-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Whorl number

1 or 2 (in Purdiaea Planch.)17
17. 004-003-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Endosperm

endosperm copious.18
18. 005-001-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Seed number

1-few19
19. 005-001-001

<<Leaves>Blade>Hairs

glabrous20
20. 002-003-001

<<Leaves>Blade>Margins

margin , .21
21. 002-003-002

<Flowers>Merosity

5-merous22
22. 004-001

<Flowers>Nectary disc

nectary-disc present around base of ovary or absent;23
23. 004-004

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary superior, ,24
24. 004-005

<Flowers>Sepals and petals

sepals and petals imbricate, free or basally connate,25
25. 004-002

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , usually opposite petals, in whorls,26
26. 004-003

<Fruits>Seeds

seeds ,27
27. 005-001

<Habit>Height

up to 25 m tall28
28. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Bracts and bracteoles

bracts (single) and bracteoles (paired) present or absent.29
29. 003-002

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal, sometimes axillary30
30. 003-001

<Leaves>Blade

blades ,31
31. 002-003

<Leaves>Petiole

usually petiolate (rarely sub-sessile);32
32. 002-002

<Leaves>Stipules

stipules present or absent, usually inconspicuous or caducous;33
33. 002-001

Description

Shrubs or small trees (up to 25 m tall), usually evergreen. Leaves alternate, simple, spirally arranged to usually clustered at stem apex; stipules present or absent, usually inconspicuous or caducous; usually petiolate (rarely sub-sessile); blades glabrous, margin entire, often coriaceous. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes axillary racemes; bracts (single) and bracteoles (paired) present or absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, 5-merous, pedicellate; sepals and petals imbricate, free or basally connate, sepals persistent, petals white to pink, usually with inrolled margins; stamens 5 or 10, usually opposite petals, in 1 or 2 (in Purdiaea Planch.) whorls, filaments free, anthers 2-locular, opening by apical pores or longitudinal slits, versatile; nectary-disc present around base of ovary or absent; ovary superior, 2-5-locular, style usually short, stigma entire or 1-3(-4)-lobed, ovules 1-3 per locule, pendulous, anatropous. Fruits indehiscent, berries or capsules, dry; seeds 1-few, endosperm copious.

Distribution

Andes present present, Guianas present, Neotropics present, Northern America, Southern America, northern S America present, south and eastern U.S.A present
A tropical family of 3 genera and ca. 14 species; in the Neotropics only 2 genera occur (Cliftonia Banks ex C.F. Gaertn. is basically a N American genus), from south and eastern U.S.A, through Mexico and the West Indies down to northern S America, except the Andes (only Purdiaea nutans Planch. has been recorded to reach the Andes); in the Guianas only 1 species.

Flowers

Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, , pedicellate;34
34. 004

Fruits

Fruits indehiscent, berries or capsules, dry;35
35. 005

Habit

Shrubs or small trees (), usually evergreen.36
36. 001

Individuals Association

Guyana, Renz, J. 14282 Guyana, Maguire, B., et al. 23106 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 9540 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2671 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 7392 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2942 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 3429 Guyana, Graham, V. 113 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 1342 Guyana, Hahn, W., et al. 5521 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 933 Guyana, Pinkus, A.S. 190 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 2497 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1044 Guyana, Davis, D.H. 634 Guyana, Abbersetts, N.J. 35 Guyana, Kvist, L.P., et al. 79 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 5701 Guyana, Hohenkerk, L.S. 250A Guyana, Tiwari, S. & A. Mengharini 788 Guyana, Davis, D.H. 98 Guyana, Sep 1888, Jenman, G.S. s.n. Guyana, Maguire, B., et al. 46025A Guyana, Liesner, R. 23327 Guyana, Tate, G.H.H. 387A Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4350 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7924 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1822 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 11402 Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. I, 219 Guyana, Abbersetts, N.J. 19 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. & T.R. Soderstrom 1956 Suriname, BW (Boschwezen) 946 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 1870 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 9516 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 4590 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 4789 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 9992 Guyana, Kelloff, C.L., et al. 875 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 8423 Guyana, Anderson, C.W. 543 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3467 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. (set. B) 334 Guyana, Quelch, M.J. & F. McConnell 88 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 7804 Guyana, Hahn, W., et al. 4046 Guyana, Quelch, M.J. & F. McConnell 638 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. & T.R. Soderstrom 2229 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 9793 Guyana, Persaud, R. 133 Guyana, Prance, G.T. 16565 Guyana, Im Thurn, E.F. (set. B) 35 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 7842 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 2604 Guyana, Cooper, A. 141 Guyana, Bio, U.G. 106 Guyana, Gleason, H.A. 486 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J., et al. 917 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 4344 Guyana, Warrington, J.F., et al. K.E.R. 130 Guyana, Renz, J. 14276-A Guyana, Schomburgk, Ro. ser. II, 596 Guyana, Davis, D.H. 182 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 11538 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M., et al. 5752 Guyana, Tillett, S.S., et al. 45102 Guyana, Quelch, M.J. & F. McConnell 203 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1474 Guyana, Quelch, M.J. & F. McConnell 193 Guyana, Tillett, S.S., et al. 45730 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana 2867 Guyana, Quelch, M.J. & F. McConnell 318 Guyana, Mori, S., et al. 8044 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 288 Guyana, Mori, S., et al. 8290 Guyana, Tate, G.H.H. 401 Guyana, Hoffman, B., et al. 1610 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 2831 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J., et al. 10755 Guyana, Tate, G.H.H. 231 Guyana, Mutchnick, P., et al. 182 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1861 Guyana, Hahn, W., et al. 5359 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 5242 Guyana, Maguire, B., et al. 32155 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M. LBB 10868 Guyana, Henkel, T.W., et al. 2459 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 2080 Guyana, McDowell, T., et al. 3045

Inflorescences

Inflorescences racemes;37
37. 003

Leaves

Leaves alternate, simple, spirally arranged to usually clustered at stem apex;38
38. 002

Notes

CYRILLACEAE have traditionally been placed in the ERICALES (sensu Cronquist, 1981), usually close to the ERICACEAE and CLETHRACEAE. These positions have been supported by analyses of DNA sequence data (Anderberg et al., 2002). The family is related to the CLETHRACEAE from which it differs by its indehiscent fruit, number of carpels and locules (3 in Clethra L.), presence of nectary disc and few ovules (numerous in Clethra). Besides Cyrilla, the only other tropical American genus recorded, Purdiaea Planch., has its centre of diversification in Cuba, and has been recorded in the Guayana Highlands of Venezuela (Miller, 1998; Ståhl, 2004), Colombia (Thomas, 1960), Ecuador (Ståhl, 1992) and Peru (Pennington et al., 2004).

Taxonomic changes

  • Cyrilla breviflora N.E. Br.

Wood

The CYRILLACEAE forms a family of small shrubs and trees belonging to 3 genera of which only one, the monospecific Cyrilla, is found in the Guianas. Cyrilla racemiflora L. is a shrub, with many slender stems, or small tree. In tropical regions it can attain heights of 10 m or more (Record & Hess 1943; Thomas 1960). It grows close to water bodies thus accounting for the spongy, pliable bark at the base of the trunk. Although the timber has a fine uniform texture and is easy to work, its tendency to warp renders it with little commercial value however it has been exploited for charcoal production (Record & Hess 1943). Its bark is rich in phenolic compounds and has been used as a styptic or astringent (Thomas 1960 and references therein).
Terms are used in accordance with the defined descriptions according to the IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification (IAWA Committee 1989).
A. -empty team- – In: InsideWood, B. Araujo, P.A. de M. & A. de Mattos Filho. 1974: Estutura das madeiras brasileiras de angispermas dicotiledôneas (VI). Cyrillaceae (Cyrilla antillana Michx.). – Rodriguésia 27, C. Détienne, P. & J. Jacquet. 1983 – In: Atlas d’identification des bois de l’Amazonie et des régions voisines. – France: Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, D. Heimsch, C. 1942: Comparative anatomy of the secondary xylem in the Gruinales and Terebinthales of Wettstein with reference to taxonomic grouping. – Lilloa 8, E. IAWA Committee. 1989: The IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. – IAWA Bull. n.s. 10, F. Lens, F., S. Jansen, P. Caris, L. Serlet & E. Smets. 2005: Comparative wood anatomy of the primuloid clade (Ericales s.l.). – Syst. Bot. 30, G. Record, S.J. & R.W. Hess. 1936: Identification of woods with conspicuous rays. – Trop. Woods 48, H. Record, S.J. & R.W. Hess. 1943 – In: Timbers of the New World. – New Haven: Yale University Press, I. Schneider, E.L. & S. Carlquist. 2003: Unusual pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of Cyrillaceae. – J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130, J. Thomas, J.L. 1960: A monographic study of the Cyrillaceae. – Contr. Gray Herb. 186, K. Vliet, G.L.C.M. van 1976: Radial vessels in rays. – IAWA Bull. 3