Begonia aptera Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 1: 97. 1827

Primary tabs

https://floramalesiana.org/new/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/SBDP_Baptera_habit_09-95-scaled.jpg

Begonia Section

  • Platycentrum

Description

  • Monoecious, erect branched herb to 2 m tall, lacking rhizomes, stems fleshy, dull red, glabrous, 0.4-1.2 cm diam. ribbed (when dry) internodes 7-18 cm long.

    Stipules caducous, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 0.8-2 × 0.2-0.45 cm, apex setose, elsewhere glabrous. Leaves: petioles 2.5-16.5 cm long, 1-3 mm diam. (when dry) glabrous, joining lamina at a transverse angle; lamina green on both surfaces, beneath paler, both surfaces glabrous, or below with very sparse microscopic glandular hairs in basal portion, asymmetric, broadly elliptic, 10-22 × 4-14 cm, ape× acute to acuminate, basal sinus cordate, 1-3 cm deep, basal lobes almost equal, overlapping, inner lobe 4-9.5 mm long, margin remotely short and somewhat irregularly bidentate, larger teeth angular, smaller teeth serrate, veins 6-7, palmate.

    Inflorescences axillary, a 2-3-branched dichasium, with up to 20 flowers, bearing male and female flowers synchronously on same inflorescence; peduncles ca. 1 cm long, glabrous; bracts caducous, narrowly ovate, 4-6 × 2.5 mm; bracteoles absent. Pedicels: those of male flowers with sparse microscopic glandular hairs, 6-7 mm long, those of female flowers glabrous, ca. 5 mm long.

    Male flowers: perianth segments white to pale pink, 4, outer pair broadly ovate to elliptic, concave, with very sparsely microscopic glandular hairs, 4-8 × 3-5 mm, apex rounded, inner pair broadly ovate to elliptic, glabrous, 3-8.5 × 2.8-4.2 mm, apex rounded; stamens 25-50, filaments 1-1.5 mm long, those in center slightly longer than the outer ones, fused at base, anthers wedge-shaped, 1.5-2 mm long, connective projecting ca. 0.2 mm, apex rounded, dehiscing via longitudinal slits along sides of anther.

    Female flowers: perianth segments white to pale pink, 6, broadly ovate to elliptic, subequal, 3.1-10 × 2.2-6 mm, pubescence as in male flowers; ovary fleshy, subglobose, 3-lobed, ca. 5 × 6.5 mm, with sparse microscopic glandular hairs, lobes with rounded riblike to obtuse-triangular wings to 1 mm long along center of each locule, 3-locular, placentation axile, placentas bifid, bearing ovules on both surfaces of placental branches; styles 3, caducous, 2.4-4 mm long, free or shortly fused at base, bifid from halfway, branches erect, stigmatic papillae broad, once or twice spirally twisted.

    Infructescences 1-10-fruited; fruiting pedicels 0.5-1 cm long; fruit fleshy, green becoming red, subglobose, to ca. 1 × 1.2 cm, glabrous or with sparse microscopic hairs as on ovary, locules with persistent wartlike remnants of wings when dry. (Tebbitt, M.C. 2003: Taxonomy of Begonia longifolia Blume (Begoniaceae) and Related Species. – Brittonia 55(1): 19-29)

Habitat

  • Forest floor species, primary and secondary forests, roadsides, between 100 and 1800 m a.s.l.
  • Primary to severely disturbed lowland to montane forests at 140–2000 m elevation. (Ardi, W.H. & Thomas, D.C. 2022: Synopsis of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the northern arm of Sulawesi and Sangihe Island, Indonesia, including three new species. – Edinburgh J. Bot. 79(Begonia special issue, article 405): 1-50. http://doi.org/10.24823/EJB.2022.405)

Conservation

  • Proposed IUCN category: LC. Widespread in Sulawesi and very frequently collected, including from secondary forests. (Hughes, M. An annotated checklist of Southeast Asian Begonia. 2008)
  • Least Concern (LC). Begonia aptera is widespread in eastern Malesia (Sulawesi, Moluccas and West New Guinea) and locally common in both primary and secondary forest habitats. Using GeoCAT (Bachman et al. 2011), the species’ Extend of Occurrence (EOO) was estimated at 690,000 km2. (Ardi, W.H., Chikmawati, T., Witono, J.R. & Thomas, D.C. (2018). A synopsis of Begonia (Begoniaceae) of Southeastern Sulawesi including four new species. Phytotaxa 381.1: 027-050.)

Distribution

Asia-Tropical: Maluku (Maluku present); New Guinea (Irian Jaya present); Sulawesi (Sulawesi present)
Indonesia: Sulawesi, Moluccas, and W New Guinea.

Widespread on Sulawesi (all provinces), but apparently absent from Sulawesi Selatan south of the Latimojong mountains.

See images for a map of point distribution data of georeferenced specimens.

Notes

  • This name [Begonia aptera] has often been misapplied to B. acetosella, possibly due to Blume stating erroneously in his description that it has 4-locular fruit ("tetragonis"). The rest of Blume's description agrees with the delimitation of B. cristata, and indeed both B. aptera and B. cristata are known only from Sulawesi. The latter is included here in synonymy (M.C. Tebbitt, pers. comm.). Begonia aptera is a coarser plant than the related B. longifolia, distinct in having larger elliptic-oblong leaves and denser inflorescences which surround the main stem. (Hughes, M. An annotated checklist of Southeast Asian Begonia. 2008)
  • Begonia aptera is one of the most widespread Begonia species in eastern Malesia. It is part of the Begonia longifolia Blume (1823: 102) species complex (Tebbitt 2003). Within this complex, several taxa which are morphologically similar to the type of Begonia aptera have been described (Tebbitt 2003, Girmansyah et al. 2009). Material collected all over Sulawesi in the last 10 years shows that there are transitional forms in this morphospace, however, and we have consequently put these names in synonymy. There is considerable morphological variation between populations in Sulawesi with regard to leaf size and shape, leaf margin serration, indumentum density (glabrous to densely hairy), and fruit morphology (fruit wings clearly developed, or only present as small rims, or absent) (Fig. 1). Moreover, Begonia aptera typically has three-locular ovaries and fruits, but individuals with aberrant fruit morphology (two- or four-locular fruits) have been occasionally observed in herbarium material (DCT 09-109 [BO, E]), the field and cultivation. This situation is similar to the considerable morphological variation observed in the closely related and widespread Begonia longifolia (see Hughes & Girmansyah, 2011). This species shows a very wide distribution from continental Southeast Asia to the Lesser Sunda Isles, and it has also been reported from Sulawesi. However, only two collections from Sulawesi have been cited in the literature (Johannsson et al. 76 [K] in Tebbitt [2003]; Hendrian et al. 939 [E, L] in Hughes [2008]), both of which fall in the morphological variability observed in Begonia aptera. Begonia longifolia (material from Malaysia) and B. aptera (material from Sulawesi) were retrieved as sister taxa in molecular phylogenies based on cpDNA data (Thomas et al. 2012), and relaxed molecular clock analyses indicate that the split occurred relatively recently, in a Pleistocene timeframe (ca. 1 Ma, 95% HPD [highest posterior
    density interval]: 0.1–1.2 Ma). The two species are morphologically similar, and have been mainly differentiated by leaf shape and leaf margin characters (typically broadly elliptic and bidentate to -serrate in Begonia aptera; typically lanceolate or occasionally the larger leaves broadly elliptic, margin single toothed to almost entire in B. longifolia; see identification key in Tebbit [2003]). (Ardi, W.H., Chikmawati, T., Witono, J.R. & Thomas, D.C. (2018). A synopsis of Begonia (Begoniaceae) of Southeastern Sulawesi including four new species. Phytotaxa 381.1: 027-050.)

Molecular Systematics

  • Genbank
  • see Thomas et al., 2012 (Thomas, D.C., Hughes, M., Phutthai, T., Ardi, W.H., Rajbhandary, S., Rubite, R., Twyford, A.D. & Richardson, J.E. 2012: West to east dispersal and subsequent rapid diversification of the mega-diverse genus Begonia (Begoniaceae) in the Malesian archipelago. – Journal of Biogeography 39: 98-113)
  • see Thomas et al., 2011 (Thomas, D.C., Hughes, M., Phutthai, T., Rajbhandary, S., Rubite, R., Ardi, W.H. & Richardson, J.E. 2011: A non-coding plastid DNA phylogeny of Asian Begonia(Begoniaceae): Evidence for morphological homoplasy and sectional polyphyly. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 428-444)
  • see Tebbitt et al., 2006 (Tebbitt, M.C., Lowe-Forrest, L., Santoriello, A., Clement, W. & Swensen, S.M. 2006: Phylogenetic Relationships of Asian Begonia, with an Emphasis on the Evolution of Rain-ballist and Animal Dispersal Mechanisms in Sections Platycentrum, Sphenanthera and Leprosae. – Systematic Botany 31(2): 327-336)

Specimens

  • SULAWESI: Tondano, Anon. s.n. Herb. Lugd. Bat. 898194-39 (lecto L) – Type of Begonia aptera Blume; E.A. Forsten s.n. (L); vii 1840, E.A. Forsten s.n. (B); unknown s.n. (B); Gorantalo, Olama River, 9 iv 2002, M. Mendum, H.J. Atkins, M. Newman, Hendrian, A. Sofyan 49 (A, E, L); E of Tongoa, 24 ii 1981, Johansson, H. Nybom, S. Riebe 58 (L); Goeroepahi, 27 iii 1917, Kauderns 61 (L); Tongoa (E of), 25 ii 1981, Johansson 76 (K, L); Mt. Sojol, 25 ii 2000, G.C.G. Argent, M. Mendum, Hendrian 151 (E); Gorantalo, Gunung Boliohutu, 23 iv 2002, M. Mendum, H.J. Atkins, M. Newman, Hendrian, A. Sofyan 186 (E); Tomohon, Gunung Masarang, 22 vi 1956, L.L. Forman 207 (K); G. Rantemario, 7 xi 1993, S. Kofman 210 (L); Emrekang District, Rantemario, 5 iii 2000, G.C.G. Argent, M. Mendum, Hendrian 238 (E); Mt. Klabut, 27 vi 1956, L.L. Forman 248 (K, L, P); Minahassa, Tomohon, iv 1894, K.F. & P.B. Sarasin 288 (lecto K) – Type of Begonia cristata Warb. ex L.B. Sm. & Wassh.; Minahassa, Gunung Lokon, 4 vii 1956, L.L. Forman 371 (K, L); Bolaang-Mongondow Distr., Dumoga Bone National Park, 6 i 1996, M. Kato et al. 382 (A); 16 v 1894, K.F. & P.B. Sarasin 488 (B[2]); iv 1894, K.F. & P.B. Sarasin 488 (B[2]); Bukit Dako, Lakatan Distr., Toli-Toli, 25 ii 1985, Ramlanto, Z. Fanani 527 (L); B. Watoewila, 25 iii 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1032 (BO); Maboesa-Sae, 21 iii 1937, P.J. Eyma 1188 (BO); Pasoei, 9 vi 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1627 (B); unknown 1721 (L); Todjambor, 23 vi 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1750 (B); Buntu Area, Kpg Lokkok, 15 ix 2003, J.J. Vermeulen 2300 (L); Tanah Toraja, Rantepoa-Palopo divide, 2 ii 2004, J.J. Vermeulen 2409 (L); Minahassa, Mt. Soputan, 11 x 1973, E.F. de Vogel 2503 (L); G. Potong, 28 ii 2001, P.J.A. Kessler 2951 (L); Palolo, Kamarora, 15 iii 2001, P.J.A. Kessler 3025 (L); Nr. Pangi, 7 iii 1990, J.S. Burley et al. 3717 (K, L); Loewoek distr., G. Loloa – G. Beabis, 27 ix 1938, P.J. Eyma 3839 (L); Menado, G. Ngilalaki, 11 vii 1939, S. Bloembergen 4125 (L); Sopu Valley, 2 v 1979, E.F. de Vogel 5174 (L); Sopu Valley, 24 iii 1979, E. Hennipman 5588 (A, K, L) [as Begonia cf. cristata]; Sopu Valley, 26 v 1979, E. Hennipman 5633 (K, L) [as Begonia cf. cristata]; Bolaang-Mongondow Distr., Dumoga Bone National Park, Gunung Mogogonipa, 6 iv 1985, E.F. de Vogel, J.J. Vermeulen 7020 (L); Palu – Parigi, 17 iv 1975, W. Meijer 9329 (L); Minahassa, Bojong, 1888, O. Warburg 15187 (B[2]); Minahassa, Tomohon, 6 vi 1954, A.H.G. Alston 15679 (A, BM, L); Minahassa, S.H. Koorders 16244B (L); Minahassa, S.H. Koorders 16245B (B, L); Minahassa, S.H. Koorders 16246B (B). (Hughes, M. An annotated checklist of Southeast Asian Begonia. 2008)
  • [Specimens from SE Sulawesi only]
    INDONESIA. Sulawesi: Southeast Sulawesi: Mt. Watoewila, 25 Mar. 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1032 (BO); Kendari-Kolaka, 23 May 2008, A.R. Kertonegoro ARK 253 (BO); Mt. Sophura, Wutamole District, 12 May 2008 D. Girmansyah Deden 859 (BO, K); Mt. Pondunaah, Wutamole District, 13 May 2008, D. Girmansyah Deden 880 (BO, K); Mt. Lasumowo, Mowewe District, 24 May 2008, D. Girmansyah Deden 1037 (BO, K); Bite forest, Lalingato, Tirawuta Subdistrict, Kolaka, 17 July 2008; A. Hidayat AH 3677 (BO, K); Bite forest, Lalingato, Tirawuta District, Kolaka, 17 July 2008; Arief Hidayat AH 3678 (BO, K); North Kolaka, Rante Angin, Tinukari Village, 7 Aug. 2009. A. Hidayat et al. 4186 (BO); North Kolaka, Rante Angin, Tinukari Village, 10 Aug. 2009. A. Hidayat et al. 4285 (BO); Wawatobi-Lasolo road divide, 12 Feb. 2017, W. H. Ardi WI 151 (BO, KRB, SING); North Kolaka, 17 Mar. 2006, H. Wiriadinata et al. 12976 (BO). North Kolaka, Rante Angin, Tinukari Village, 20 Dec. 2009. E.A. Widjaja & Agus Suyadi EAW 8919 (BO); North Kolaka, Rante Angin, Tinukari Village, 29 June 2010. E.A. Widjaja & Agus Suyadi EAW 9058 (BO); North Kolaka, Rante Angin, Tinukari Village, 20 Dec. 2009. E.A. Widjaja et al. EAW 9721(BO); Mt. Pondunaa, Watuwila, 12 May 2008, A.R. Kartonegoro ARK 231 (BO). (Ardi, W.H., Chikmawati, T., Witono, J.R. & Thomas, D.C. (2018). A synopsis of Begonia (Begoniaceae) of Southeastern Sulawesi including four new species. Phytotaxa 381.1: 027-050.)
  • INDONESIA. Sulawesi: Minahassa, Bojong, 1888, Warburg 15187 (B[2]); Goeroepaki, Kauderns 61 (L); Tomohon, 700 m, 6 Jun 1954, Alston 15679 (BM, L); Lokon, 16 May 1894, Sarason 278 (K); Minahassa, N slope of Mt. Klabat, ca. 500 m, 27 Jun 1956, Forman 248 (K[3]); Utara, 220 km, W of Manado, Burley, Turin et al. 3717 (L); G. Masarang, Tomohon, secondary forest edge of crater lake, ca. 1200 m, 22 Jun 1956, Forman 207 (K[2]); Pasoei-Rante Lemo, 1929, Kjellberg 1627 (B); Todjamboe, 800 m, 23 Jun, Kjellberg 1750 (B); Sopu Valley, ca. 80 km S of Palu 0°30'-1°30'S, 119°30'-120°30'E, 1000 m, 24 May 1979, E. Hennipman 5588 (A); Sopu Valley, ca. 80 km, SSE of Palu, ca. 1°16'S, 120°16'E, 1000 m, 2 May 1979, de Vogel 5174 (L[2]); Selatan, Gunung Rantemario Gowa subcamp, ca. 3°24'S, 120°00'30'E, 11 Jul 1993, 1850 m, Kofman 210 (L[2]). (Tebbitt, M.C. 2003: Taxonomy of Begonia longifolia Blume (Begoniaceae) and Related Species. – Brittonia 55(1): 19-29)
  • Indonesia. Sulawesi. Northern arm of Sulawesi. Western North Sulawesi: Bukit Dako, Lakatan Distr., Toli-toli, 25 ii 1985, Ramlanto & Z. Fanani 527 (BO, L); Mt Sojol, 25 ii 2000, G.C.G. Argent et al. 151 (E); Gunung Sidole, 26 xii 2018, E. Damayanti et al. ED11 (CEB); Sojol foothill, Balungkang village, 7 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI305 (BO, KRB, SING). Central North Sulawesi. Gorontalo: Olama River, 9 iii 2002, M. Mendum et al. 49 (A, E, L); Gunung Boliohutu, 23 iii 2002, M. Mendum et al. 186 (E). Eastern North Sulawesi. Manado: Tonsealama, 13 xii 1932, C.A. Wisse 78 (BO); Mt Klabat: 27 vi 1956, L.L. Forman 248 (K, L, P); 30 i 2019, W.H. Ardi WI387 (BO, KRB, SING); Kali Waterfall, 31 i 2019, W.H. Ardi WI392 (BO, KRB, SING). Minahassa: Bojong, 1888, O. Warburg 15187 (B [2]); Gunung Lokon, 4 vii 1956, L.L. Forman 371 (K, L); Mt Soputan: 11 x 1973, E.F. de Vogel 2503 (L); S.H. Koorders 16244B (L); S.H. Koorders 16245B (B, L); S.H. Koorders 16246B (B); Mt Manimporok, East of Mt Soputan, 8 ii 2009, D. Girmansyah DEDEN1103 (BO); G. Potong, 28 ii 2001, P.J.A. Kessler 2951 (L). Tomohon: 6 vi 1954, A.H.G. Alston 15679 (A, BM, L). G. Masarang: 22 vi 1956, L.L. Forman 207 (K); 20 ii 2008, M. Ardiyani et al. 104 (BO, E); 17 iii 2006, S. Sunarti SSS06-010 (BO); 17 iii 2006, S. Sunarti SSS06-022 (BO); 2 ii 2019, W.H. Ardi WI397 (BO, KRB, SING). Lokon: S.H. Koorders 12648B(BO); Kayawu Village, 17 ii 2009, D. Girmansyah DEDEN1269 (BO). G. Mahawu: Rurukan Village, 15 ii 2009, D. Girmansyah DEDEN1233 (BO); xii 2003, Ambriansyah AA2641 (WAN); Nr Pangi, 7 iii 1990, J.S. Burley et al. 3717 (K, L). Bolaang-Mongondow: Goeroepahi, 27 iii 1917, Kauderns 61 (L). Dumoga BoneNational Park: Gunung Mogogonipa: 6 iv 1985, E.F. de Vogel & J.J. Vermeulen 7020 (L); 6 i 1996, M. Kato et al. 382 (A); Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, Mauk Malotong, 21 v 2002, T. Uji 4537 (BO); Paya-paya, Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve, 2 xi 2016, Barber et al. BAAK35 (BO, E).
    Central Sulawesi Province: Todjamboe, 23 vi 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1750 (B); Menado, Kampong Sidaoenta, 13 vii 1939, S. Bloembergen 4224 (BO); Palu-Parigi, 17 iv 1975, W. Meijer 9329 (BO, L); E of Tongoa, 24 ii 1981, H. Johansson et al. 58 (L); Tongoa, 25 ii 1981, Johansson 76 (K, L); Palolo, Kamarora, 15 iii 2001, P.J.A. Kessler 3025 (L); Takolekayu, 14 i 2008, M. Ardiyani et al. 152 (BO, E); Uwe lutu, C. Pangi Binangga, 20 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI214 (BO, KRB, SING); Saluopa waterfall, 31 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI254 (BO, KRB, SING); Pendolo, 2 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI283 (BO, KRB, SING); Gunung Mad, Pegunungan Biru, Poso-Napu Road Divided, 3 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI293 (BO, KRB, SING); Lonsi Waterfall, Taloyon, Pagimana, 14 ii 2019, W.H. Ardi WI426 (BO, KRB, SING). Lore Lindu National Park: Menado, G. Ngilalaki, 11 vii 1939, S. Bloembergen 4125 (L); Ponoh, 3 km NE of Toro Village, 6 xii 2007, D. Cicuzza 464 (E); Tambing Lake vicinity, 4 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI303 (BO, KRB, SING). Mt Nokilalaki: 6 iii 2008, D. Cicuzza 794 (E); M. shelter 1, 24 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI217 (BO, KRB, SING); track to shelter 2, 24 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI218 (BO, KRB, SING). Luwuk: Laumarang Waterfall, 9 ii 2019, W.H. Ardi WI414 (BO, KRB, SING); Batu Tikar Waterfall, 9 ii 2019, W.H. Ardi WI417 (BO, KRB, SING); Mt Loloa–Mt Beabis, 27 ix 1938, P.J. Eyma 3839 (BO, L); Hanga-hanga waterfall, 8 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-22 (BO, E). Bunta: Sumber Agung, Gunung Hek, 25 ii 2004, Hendrian et al. 884 (E); G. Hek, 9 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-27 (BO, E); Sumber Agung village, Mt Hek, 10 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-31 (BO, E); Mt Hek, 10 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-36 (BO, E). M. Katopas. Wotusongu Village: 6 v 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-66 (BO, E); 11 v 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-73 (BO, E). Mt Lumut: 10 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-54 (BO, E); 21 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-55 (BO, E); 21 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-57 (BO, E); 23 iv 2008, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT08-59 (BO, E). Banggai Islands: KM 13, Potongan Panjang, Tinakung Selatan, 18 ix 2014, D. Girmansyah DEDEN2039 (BO); Nandik, Tinakung Utara, 23 ix 2014, D. Girmansyah DEDEN2081 (BO); Road to Lumbi-lumbia waterfall, South Bulagi, 20 ix 2014, D. Girmansyah DEDEN2602 (BO). Sopu Valley: 24 iii 1979, E. Hennipman 5588 (A, BO, K, L); 2 v 1979, E.F de Vogel 5174 (L); 26 v 1979, E. Hennipman 5633 (BO, K, L). Road to Kulawi: 29 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI239 (BO, KRB, SING); 29 vii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI246 (BO, KRB, SING). Tentena-Bada Road: 1 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI267 (BO, KRB, SING); 1 viii 2018, W.H. Ardi WI273 (BO, KRB, SING). West Sulawesi Province: Stream about 60 km from Mamasa to Polewali road, 3 viii 1998, W.S. Hoover & H. Wiriadinata 889 (BO). Mamasa: Mamasa-Tabang, Polewali, 21 vi 1974, Shuji Yoshida 1236 (BO); Tabang, Tanduk Kalua Village, 21 xi 2019, W.H. Ardi et al. WI505 (BO, CEB, SING); Pesapa Kurrak Village, 23 xi 2019, W.H. Ardi et al. WI543 (BO, CEB, SING); Seppang Village, 24 xi 2019, W. H. Ardi et al. WI561 (BO); Tawalian Timur, 26 xi 2019, W.H. Ardi WI594 (BO, CEB, SING); Sumarorong, Sarambu Liawan, 27 xi 2019, W.H. Ardi et al. WI608 (BO, CEB, SING). G. Gandang Dewata. Tetean Waterfall: 21 iv 2016, Kartonegoro et al. ARK929; 21 iv 2016, Kartonegoro et al. ARK939 (BO). G. Mambulinin: 11 v 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-126 (BO, E); Sulawesi Barat, 13 v 2009, D.C.Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-130 (BO, E). South Sulawesi Province: Pasoei, 9 vi 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1627 (B); Maboesa-Sae, 21 iii 1937, P.J. Eyma 1188 (BO); Masamba, 4 viii 1937, P.J. Eyma 1550 (BO); Masamba, 4 viii 1937, P.J. Eyma 1551 (BO); Faruhumpenai, Toromu village, Luwu Regency, 16 ii 1986, Wardi 004 (BO); Pantawanan, Eran Batu, Baraka district, 29 viii 1994, D. Girmansyah DEDEN014 (BO); Mt Pasaparan, Mts Latimojong, 27 x 1994, Tahan Uji & M. Amir 2506 (BO); stream about 25 km from Palopo to Rantepao Road, 3 xii 1998, W.S. Hoover & H. Wiriadinata 892(BO); Road between Wotu and Lake Poso, 20 ii 2000, G. Argent et al. 116 (E); Buntu Area, Kpg Lokkok, 15 ix 2003, J.J. Vermeulen 2300 (L). Rantemario: 5 iii 2000, G.C.G. Argent et al. 238 (E); 7 xi 1993, S. Kofman 210 (L); 27 iv 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-95 (BO, E); 27 iv 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-99 (BO, E). Mangkutana-Pendolo: 3 ii 2004, J.J. Vermeulen 2524 (L); 3 v 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-109 (BO, E); 3 v 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-118 (BO, E); 3 v 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-119 (BO, E). Tana Toraja. Rantepoa-palopo: 2 ii 2004, J.J. Vermeulen 2409 (L); 30 iv 2009, D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi DCT09-103 (BO, E). Southeast Sulawesi Province: Kendari-Kolaka, 23 v 2008, A.R. Kartonegoro ARK253 (BO); Mt Lasumowo, Mowewe District, 24 v 2008, D. Girmansyah DEDEN1037 (BO, K); Wawatobi-Lasolo road divide, 12 ii 2017, W.H. Ardi WI151 (BO, KRB, SING). North Kolaka: 17 iii 2006, H. Wiriadinata et al. 12976 (BO); along logging road between km 14 and km 17, 17 iii 2006, H. Wiriadinata et al., DEDEN573 (BO); along logging road between km 17 and pos 4, 18 iii 2006, H. Wiriadinata et al., DEDEN575 (BO). Rante Angin: Tinukari Village, 20 xii 2009, E.A. Widjaja & A. Suyadi EAW919 (BO); 7 viii 2009, A. Hidayat et al. 4186 (BO); 10 viii 2009, A. Hidayat et al. 4285 (BO); 3 viii 2009, D. Potter et al. 090803-15 (BO); 29 vi 2010, E.A. Widjaja & A. Suyadi EAW9058 (BO); 30 vi 2011, E.A. Widjaja et al. EAW9721 (BO). M. Watuwila: 25 iii 1929, G.K. Kjellberg 1032 (BO); Mt Pondunaa, 12 v 2008, A.R. Kartonegoro ARK 231 (BO); Mt Sophura, 12 v 2008, D. Girmansyah DEDEN859 (BO, K); Mt Pondunaah, 13 v 2008, D. Girmansyah DEDEN880 (BO, K). Kolaka: Kec. Uluiwoi, Ds. Ahiluhu, Marmer Cave, 17 iii 2006, H. Wiriadinata et al., DEDEN746 (BO); Bite forest, Lalingato, Tirawuta Subdistrict: 17 vii 2008; A. Hidayat AH 3677 (BO, K); 17 vii 2008, A. Hidayat AH 3678 (BO, K). Province unknown: iv 1894, K.F. & P.B. Sarasin 488 (B [2]); 16 vi 1894, K.F. & P.B. Sarasin 488 (B [2]); unknown 1721 (L); Forst s.n (BO); Todjambor, 21 iii 1929, G. Kjellberg 1701 (BO). (Ardi, W.H. & Thomas, D.C. 2022: Synopsis of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the northern arm of Sulawesi and Sangihe Island, Indonesia, including three new species. – Edinburgh J. Bot. 79(Begonia special issue, article 405): 1-50. http://doi.org/10.24823/EJB.2022.405)