1Leaves simple, without lobes.
2Petiole base without crests (New Guinea)
2'Petiole base with 1 or more crests.
3Petiole base with several crests (Philippines)
3'Petiole base with a single collar-like crest.
4Fertile flowers pedicelled (Philippines).
4'Fertile flowers sessile (or subsessile).
5Leaf obovate to oblanceolate, petiole 3 cm or less
5'Leaf elliptic, petiole 5 cm or more
6Leaf broadly obovate (Solomons)
6'Leaf lanceolate or narrowly obovate.
7Pseudo-fruits pedicelled (Moluccas)
7'Pseudo-fruits sessile.
8Inflorescence c. 60 cm ø (Moluccas)
8'Inflorescence c. 30 cm ø (New Ireland)
8''Leaves lobed or digitately compound.
9Leaves digitately compound.
9'Leaves lobed (sometimes smaller simple leaves below inflorescence).
10Ovary 10-16-celled (New Guinea)
10'Ovary 4-5-celled.
11Leaflets lobed (Philippines).
11'Leaflets entire.
12Primary rays of inflorescence c. 10 or fewer
12'Primary rays of inflorescence more than 20.
13Inflorescence c. 16-20 cm ø
13'Inflorescence c. 5-6 cm ø
14Leaflets elliptic-oblong to ovate (Philippines)
14'Leaflets linear-lanceolate.
15Leaflets 4-7, petiole 4-6 cm (Philippines)
15'Leaflets 9 or more, petiole longer than 10 cm (Borneo)
16Pseudo-fruits sessile.
16'Pseudo-fruits pedicelled.
17Petiolar crests long-pectinate. Bracts of the peduncle heavily setose (Philippines)
17'Petiolar crests fimbriate or undulate. Bracts of the peduncle not setose (Moluccas).
18Lateral inflorescence branches with opposite, persistent bracts close to the base
18'Lateral inflorescence branches with scars of opposite caducous bracts near the middle
19Lateral inflorescence branches without an articulation.
19'Lateral inflorescence branches with an articulation (2 bracts or bract-scars).
20Petiolar base with a single collar-like crest (Borneo)
20'Petiolar base with several crests.
21Petiolar crests long-pectinate.
21'Petiolar crests fimbriate or undulate.
22Fertile flowers pedicelled. Stamens at least 7 (Key Is.)
22'Fertile flowers sessile (or subsessile). Stamens 5 (Bismarck Arch.)
23Stamens and ovary cells more than 5. Flowers usually pedicelled (Moluccas)
23'Stamens and ovary cells 4. Flowers sessile or subsessile (Philippines).
24Fertile flowers pedicelled.
24'Fertile flowers sessile (or if subsessile bracteoles longer than the very short pedicels).
25Pedicels of fertile flowers longer than 7 mm (New Guinea)
25'Pedicels of fertile flowers 5 mm or shorter.
26Ovary cells 7 or more.
26'Ovary cells 4-5.
27Leaf lobes elliptic (Celebes)
27'Leaf lobes pinnatilobed (Batjan)
28Petiolar crests ± entire (Philippines)
28'Petiolar crests with long setae.
29Leaves coriaceous, margin thickened, teeth obtuse (Philippines).
29'Leaves membranaceous, margin not thickened, teeth setulose (Celebes)
30Ovary cells 10 or more (New Guinea).
30'Ovary cells 6 or fewer.
31Flower buds large (c. 9-12 mm long). Primary rays of inflorescence very strong
31'Flower buds smaller (c. 4-6 mm long). Primary rays of inflorescence more tenuous.
32Heads of fertile flowers ± discoid at anthesis
32'Heads of fertile flowers globose
33Leaf lobes lanceolate.
33'Leaf lobes broader.
34Leaf lobes 4-7; petiole 4-6 cm (Philippines)
34'Leaf lobes 9 or more; petiole longer than 10 cm (Borneo)
35Leaf surfaces retaining some trace of setulose tomentum. Umbellules of pseudo-fruits small (8 mm ø or less) (New Guinea)
35'Leaf surfaces glabrous at maturity. Umbellules of pseudo-fruits larger (1 cm ø or more).
36Ovary cells 3 (Philippines).
36'Ovary cells 4 or more.
37Petiolar crests ± entire
37'Petiolar crests long-pectinate
38Umbellules of pseudo-fruits large (3-5 cm ø) (Philippines).
38'Umbellules of pseudo-fruits smaller (2½ cm ø or less).
39Primary rays of the inflorescence 9-12 cm long. Leaves with strong radiating veins, usually more than 11
39'Primary rays of the inflorescence 4-5 cm long. Leaf-veins less strongly developed, usually fewer than 11.
40Leaf with a small triangular lobe below the middle of each side of the blade (not strictly palmately lobed) (Philippines)
40'Leaf palmately lobed.
41Petiolar crests long-pectinate (Celebes)
41'Petiolar crests fimbriate, entire, or undulate.
42Articulation of lateral branches of umbels close to the base (Talaud Is.)
42'Articulation of lateral branches of umbels near the middle.
43Inflorescence over 20 cm ø (New Guinea)
43'Inflorescence under 20 cm ø (Philippines).
44Leaf usually 3-lobed. Inflorescence rays delicate, indistinctly setose to glabrous
44'Leaf usually 5-7-lobed. Inflorescence rays sturdy, markedly setose