KEY TO THE SPECIES

1Ostiole tri-radiate or slit-shaped, the upper ostiolar bracts descending
1'Ostiole circular, the upper ostiolar bracts horizontal
2Aperture of the ostiole slit-shaped
2'Aperture of the ostiole tri-radiate
3Lateral veins 9-14 pairs; apex of the peduncle ± dilated; fig receptacle 0.4-1 cm diam. when dry
3'Lateral veins (12-)15-25(-30) pairs; apex of the peduncle extended into a cupule
4Stipules 4-20 cm long; fig receptacle 1-4 cm diam. when dry, mostly ellipsoid
4'Stipules 1-3 cm long; fig receptacle 0.3-1.2 cm diam. when dry, subglobose
5Petiole usually 3-6 cm long. — Flores
5'Petiole 0.5-2.5 cm long
6Periderm of the twigs flaking off; lamina mostly broadest below the middle. — Lesser Sunda Islands
6'Periderm of the twigs persistent; lamina broadest in the middle. — Moluccas, New Guinea
7Stipules connate, 6-25 cm long
7'Stipules free, up to 6 cm long (on opening shoots sometimes longer)
8Internodes conspicuously different in length, the proximal ones of a season’s growth long, subsequently shorter, the ultimate ones very short, sometimes with persistent stipules forming terminal buds
8'Internodes not conspicuously different in length
9Apex of the lamina caudate. — Cultivated, widespread
9'Apex of the lamina acuminate, mostly shortly so
10Major basal lateral veins up to 1/3-1/2 the length of the lamina; cystoliths on both sides of the lamina (in dried material visible as minute pustules); ovary white. — Widespread
10'Major basal lateral veins 1/10-1/3 the length of the lamina; cystoliths (usually) only beneath; ovaries red(-brown)
11Lateral veins 4-7 pairs; margin of upper ostiolar bracts ciliolate. — Widespread
11'Lateral veins 7-16 pairs; upper ostiolar bracts glabrous (or sparsely puberulous outside)
12Stipules (at the apices of leafy twigs) 0.8-1.5 cm long
12'Stipules (at the apices of leafy twigs) 0.2-0.8 cm long
13Epidermis of the petiole (usually) flaking off, at least at the uppermost and/or basal part; peduncle 0.1-0.5 cm long. — Widespread
13'Epidermis of the petiole persistent; peduncle 0.7-1.5 cm long or at most 0.1 cm long
14Peduncle 0.7-1.5 cm long; basal bracts caducous. — Widespread
14'Peduncle 0-0.1 cm long; basal bracts persistent. — Widespread
15Epidermis of petiole usually flaking off, at least at the top of the petiole and/or the base or hairy at the base; waxy gland in dry material in a groove in the base of the midrib; terminal stipules (usually) forming an ovoid (to subglobose) bud; basal bracts caducous, or if persistent, then usually splitting
15'Epidermis persistent; waxy gland not in a groove at the base of the midrib; basal bracts caducous or remaining entire
16Basal bracts persistent and splitting; fig receptacle 0.3-0.5(-0.7) cm diam. when dry; petiole glabrous. — Widespread
16'Basal bracts caducous; fig receptacle 0.7-1.2 cm diam. when dry, or if smaller, then the base of the petiole hairy. — Moluccas
17Basal lateral veins up to 1/5-1/3 the length of the lamina, mostly departing from the midrib at different distances from the base, their bases running parallel to the midrib. — Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas
17'Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/5 the length of the lamina, their bases not running parallel to the midrib
18Peduncle 0-0.1 cm long; basal bracts persistent. — Widespread
18'Peduncle 0.1-0.3(-0.5) cm long; basal bracts caducous. — Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines
19Figs pedunculate or sessile with a peduncle-like stipe
19'Figs sessile
20Figs sessile with a peduncle-like stipe (the basal bracts at the base of the stipe)
20'Figs pedunculate (the basal bracts at the apex of the peduncle)
21Tertiary venation subscalariform; various parts often hairy. — New Guinea
21'Tertiary venation largely parallel to the lateral veins; all parts glabrous. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
22Apex of the peduncle widened into a rim (bearing the basal bracts inside)
22'Apex of the peduncle not widened into a rim
23Midrib of the lamina beneath laterally hairy, often with hairs concentrated in the axils of the lateral veins. — Widespread
23'Midrib of the lamina beneath with hairs evenly distributed or absent
24Fig receptacle subglobose, the basal bracts c. 3 mm long. — Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea
24'Fig receptacle usually ellipsoid to ovoid, rarely subglobose, the basal bracts 3-11 mm long. — Widespread
25Basal bracts (early) caducous
25'Basal bracts persistent
26Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/6 the length of the lamina; stipules 1-1.5(-1.7) cm long. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Islands
26'Basal lateral veins up to 1/4-1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina; stipules 0.5-1 (-1.5) cm long. — New Guinea
27Fig receptacle 0.4-0.7(-1) cm diam. when dry, the peduncle 0.7-1.2 cm long, 2 upper ostiolar bracts visible, these imbricate; leafy twigs glabrous or sparsely and minutely white puberulous. — Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea
27'Fig receptacle 0.8-1.2 cm diam. when dry, the peduncle 0.2-0.7 cm long, 3 upper ostiolar bracts visible, these unequal in size and hardly or not imbricate; leafy twigs with dark brown appressed hairs. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
28Lateral and smaller veins (and often also the apex of the midrib) invisible. — Malay Peninsula, Borneo
28'Lateral veins visible, smaller veins varying from clearly visible to ± obscure
29Tertiary venation parallel to the lateral veins (such as in F. elastica); lateral veins departing in wide angles (towards 90°)
29'Tertiary venation partly to largely parallel to the lateral veins to reticulate towards the margin or reticulate to subscalariform towards the margin; lateral veins usually departing in more acute angles (about 60°)
30Fig receptacle ellipsoid, ovoid, or cylindrical; petioles and stipules usually 1.5-3 cm long. — Widespread
30'Fig receptacle subglobose, or if distinctly longer than wide, then the petioles and/or stipules usually up to 1.5 cm long
31Fig receptacle usually 1-1.8 cm diam. when dry; basal bracts 3-8(-10) mm long
31'Fig receptacle 0.5-1 cm diam. when dry, or if more than 1 cm diam., then the basal bracts 0.5-3 mm long
32Basal bracts subequal in size and shape; ostiole closed. — New Guinea
32'Basal bracts unequal in size and shape; ostiole ± open. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, (Philippines)
33Stipules 1.5-2.5 cm long; ostiole closed; basal bracts mostly ± connate. — Celebes?, New Guinea
33'Stipules usually 0.5-1.5 cm long; ostiole ± open; basal bracts free
34Midrib (at least in the lower part) of the lamina slightly prominent; petiole, stipules and fig receptacle when dry usually blackish. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java
34'Midrib (at least in the lower part) of the lamina slightly impressed; petiole, stipules and fig receptacle when dry usually pale yellowish. — Widespread
35Lamina mostly up to 10 cm, rarely up to 15 cm long
35'Lamina mostly longer than 10 cm, up to c. 20 or up to c. 30 cm
36Fig receptacle longer than wide (ellipsoid, obovoid, ovoid, or cylindrical)
36'Fig receptacle about as long as wide (subglobose)
37Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate
37'Ostiole ± open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or partly imbricate
38Fig receptacle 1.5-2 cm diam. when dry; basal bracts 5-10 mm long. — Widespread
38'Fig receptacle 0.5-1(-1.2) cm diam. when dry; basal bracts 3-5 mm long. — Borneo
39Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/4 the length of the lamina
39'Basal lateral veins up to 1/4-1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina
40Petiole 0.5-1(-1.5) cm long; base of the lamina rounded to obtuse, apex rounded to obtuse to short-acuminate. — Sumatra, Borneo
40'Petiole 1.5-2.5(-3) cm long; base of the lamina cuneate to obtuse, apex acuminate. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines
41Stipules distinctly hairy; margin of the lamina not callose towards the base; apex of the lamina acuminate. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
41'Stipules glabrous (or sparsely and minutely puberulous); margin of the lamina usually callose towards the base; apex of the lamina rounded to short-acuminate. — Widespread
42Indumentum on leafy twigs and stipules brown. — Malay Peninsula
42'Indumentum absent or, if present, then white
43Lower surface of the lamina ± densely puberulous on the veins. — Malay Peninsula
43'Lower surface of the lamina glabrous, or if hairy, then minutely so and only on the midrib
44Ostiole ± open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or partly imbricate
44'Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate
45Basal lateral veins branched, 1/3-1/2 the length of the lamina; margin of the lamina not callose towards the base. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Philippines
45'Basal lateral veins unbranched, mostly up to 1/4 the length of the lamina, or if up to 1/3(-1/2), then the margin of the lamina ± callose towards the base
46Ostiole (sub)conical
46'Ostiole flat, slightly prominent, or slightly sunken
47Fig receptacle 0.4-0.7 cm diam. when dry; stipules 0.5-1(-1.2) cm long. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
47'Fig receptacle (0.5-)0.7-1.2 cm diam. when dry; stipules (0.5-)1-1.5(-2) cm long. — Sumatra, Borneo
48Tertiary and smaller veins of the lamina obscure beneath; stipules 0.5-1 cm long; fig receptacle 0.3-0.4 cm diam. when dry. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula
48'Tertiary and smaller veins of the lamina distinct; stipules mostly 1-2 cm long, or if 0.5-1 cm long, then the fig receptacle 0.5-0.8(-1) cm diam. when dry
49Basal bracts 3-8(-10) mm long; fig receptacle 0.7-1.3(-1.8) cm diam. when dry
49'Basal bracts 1-3 mm long; fig receptacle 0.3-0.6(-0.8) cm diam. when dry, basal lateral veins up to 1/4-1/2 the length of the lamina, and/or petioles, stipules, and basal bracts usually glabrous
50Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/4 the length of the lamina; petioles, stipules, and basal bracts minutely white puberulous; margin of the lamina not callose towards the base. — Sumatra, Borneo
50'Basal lateral veins up to 1/4-1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina; petioles, stipules, and basal bracts usually glabrous; margin of the lamina ± callose towards the base. — Widespread
51Petioles and stipules usually 0.5-1 cm long; basal lateral veins usually 1/4-1/2 the length of the lamina
51'Petioles and stipules usually 1-2 cm long; basal lateral veins usually 1/10-1/4, sometimes in F. rigo up to 1/3, the length of the lamina
52Basal bracts 2-3 mm long; apex of the lamina short-acuminate (with an obtuse acumen) to obtuse to subacute to rounded. — Widespread
52'Basal bracts 1.5-2 mm long; apex of the lamina usually acuminate to subcaudate. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
53Basal bracts 1-2 mm long; apex of the lamina acuminate. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
53'Basal bracts 2-3 mm long; apex of the lamina rounded to obtuse. — New Guinea
54Indumentum of leafy twigs, petioles, and stipules (usually) brownish; basal bracts c. 2 mm long. — Borneo
54'Indumentum of leafy twigs, petioles, and stipules absent or whitish, or if brownish, then the basal bracts 3-5(-10) mm long
55Stipules and/or petioles usually 0.5-1 cm long; apex of the lamina rounded to obtuse or to subacute to short-acuminate, the acumen obtuse; basal bracts 0.5-4 mm long
55'Stipules and petioles usually 1-1.5 cm long, or up to 3 or 4 cm long, resp.; apex of the lamina acuminate, or if rounded to obtuse and basal bracts 2-3 mm long, then only occurring in New Guinea or the basal bracts 4-8(-10) mm long
56Tertiary venation (nearly) invisible. — Malay Peninsula, Borneo
56'Tertiary venation visible
57Fig receptacle with internal hairs; midrib of the lamina flat to slightly prominent or impressed above; acumen of the lamina obtuse. — Widespread
57'Fig receptacle without internal hairs; midrib of the lamina impressed above; acumen of the lamina usually acute. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes?
58Basal bracts 2-3 mm long. — New Guinea
58'Basal bracts 3-8(-10) mm long
59Apex of the lamina acuminate, the acumen usually acute; margin of the lamina not callose. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes?
59'Apex of the lamina rounded to short-acuminate, the acumen usually obtuse; margin of the lamina ± callose towards the base. — Widespread
60Fig receptacle longer than wide
60'Fig receptacle about as long as wide (or wider than high)
61Fig receptacle 2-3.5 cm diam. when dry
61'Fig receptacle 0.3-2 cm diam. when dry
62Apex of lamina rounded; basal lateral veins mostly up to 1/3-1/2 the length of the lamina. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
62'Apex of lamina acuminate (to obtuse); basal lateral veins mostly 1/8-1/3 the length of the lamina
63Stipules 1-1.5(-2) cm long; (main) basal lateral veins often branched, often 1-3 pairs of smaller lateral veins below the main ones; base of the lamina cordate to rounded; basal lateral veins 0.5-4 mm long
63'Stipules (1.5-)2-4 cm long; basal lateral veins unbranched, usually without smaller lateral veins below the (main) ones; base of the lamina rounded to cuneate, or cordate, then the basal bracts 10-20(-30) mm long
64Stipules brownish (woolly) tomentose to subvillous or glabrous; fig receptacle glabrous inside. — Widespread
64'Stipules sparsely to densely yellowish sericeous; fig receptacle hairy inside, on the inner surface or also on the pedicels. — Philippines, Celebes
65Lateral veins (8-)12-20 pairs; basal lateral veins up to 1/20-1/10 the length of the lamina. — Widespread
65'Lateral veins 8-12 pairs; basal lateral veins up to 1/8-1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina
66Basal bracts 8-10 mm long, ovate to elliptic, the apex obtuse; tertiary venation partly parallel to the lateral veins. — Sumatra
66'Basal bracts 10-20(-30) mm long, semicircular to suborbicular, the apex rounded. — Java, Borneo
67Fig receptacle 1-2 cm diam. when dry
67'Fig receptacle 0.3-1 cm diam. when dry
68Indumentum (partly) set(ul)ose with irritating hairs
68'Indumentum not set(ul)ose
69Basal bracts 0.5-3 mm long
69'Basal bracts 3-18 mm long
70Stipules 1-1.5(-2) cm long; base of the lamina cordate to rounded. — Widespread
70'Stipules 2-4 cm long; base of the lamina rounded or to subattenuate
71Basal lateral veins curved, usually running close to the margin, unbranched; ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate. — Malay Peninsula
71'Basal lateral veins straight or slightly curved, branched; ostiole ± open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or slightly imbricate. — Widespread
72Petiole 0.5-1(-1.5) cm long, 1-2 mm thick
72'Petiole 1.5-5.5 cm long, 2-3(-5) mm thick
73Basal bracts 3-5 mm long; fig receptacle 0.5-1.2 cm diam. when dry. — Sumatra, Borneo
73'Basal bracts 5-8 mm long; fig receptacle 1.5-2 cm diam. when dry
74Ostiole ± open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or slightly imbricate; lateral veins 5 or 6 (or 7) pairs; stipules yellowish to whitish sericeous to puberulous. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula
74'Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate; lateral veins 7-12 pairs, or if less, then the stipules glabrous or minutely white puberulous
75Basal bracts 10-18 mm long, covering 1/2-3/4 the length of the receptacle
75'Basal bracts usually 4-10 cm long, covering up 1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina
76Apex of lamina acuminate, the acumen acute; basal bracts broadest below the middle, the apex often obtuse. — Java
76'Apex of lamina short-acuminate, the acumen obtuse; basal bracts broadest above the middle, the apex rounded. — Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea
77Midrib (and lateral veins) ± impressed above; stipules brownish to whitish sericeous to puberulous; base of lamina mostly (sub)cordate with a narrow sinus. — Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines
77'Midrib (and lateral veins) slightly prominent to flat or the midrib sometimes slightly impressed; stipules glabrous or white (minutely) puberulous; base of lamina mostly cuneate to rounded
78Apex of lamina acuminate, the acumen acute; basal bracts broadest below the middle, the apex often obtuse; areoles of lamina obscure beneath. — Widespread
78'Apex of lamina short-acuminate, the acumen obtuse; basal bracts broadest above the middle, the apex rounded; areoles of lamina usually distinct beneath because of prominent veinlets. — Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea
79Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate
79'Ostiole ± open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or partly imbricate
80Basal bracts semicircular to suborbicular, imbricate, the apex rounded; areoles of lamina usually distinct beneath because of prominent veinlets. — Eastern Malesia
80'Basal bracts ovate, not (or only basally) imbricate, the apex obtuse; areoles of lamina obscure beneath. — Widespread
81Basal lateral veins branched; lateral veins (3-)4-6 pairs. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Philippines
81'Basal lateral veins (usually) unbranched; lateral veins 6-12 pairs
82Basal lateral veins 1/4-1/3(-1/2) the length of the lamina; apex of lamina rounded to short-acuminate, the acumen obtuse; leafy twigs, petioles and stipules usually glabrous. — Philippines
82'Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/4 the length of the lamina; apex of lamina acuminate, or if short-acuminate to rounded, then the leafy twigs, petioles and stipules puberulous
83Fig receptacle ellipsoid. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines
83'Fig receptacle ovoid. — Sumatra, Borneo
84Fig receptacle 1-2 cm diam. when dry
84'Fig receptacle 0.3-1 cm diam. when dry
85Indumentum on various parts (as leafy twigs and midrib of the lamina beneath) brown floccose-tomentose
85'Indumentum not floccose-tomentose
86Apex of the fig receptacle concave, the ostiole sunken; stipules 2-6 cm long, subpersistent. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula
86'Apex of the fig receptacle convex to submammillate, the ostiole ± prominent; stipules 1-2 cm long, mostly caducous. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
87Basal bracts 0.5-3 mm long
87'Basal bracts (3-)4-10(-18) mm long
88Midrib impressed above; areoles of the lamina conspicuous beneath. — Malay Peninsula
88'Midrib slightly prominent to flat (or slightly impressed towards the base); areoles of the lamina obscure
89Apex of lamina acuminate; petiole 2-5 cm long. — Borneo
89'Apex of lamina rounded (to obtuse); petiole (0.5-)1-2(-3) cm long. — Sumatra?, Malay Peninsula
90Lamina on the midrib above and the midrib and lateral veins beneath white puberulous; base of the lamina cordate to rounded. — Cultivated
90'Lamina above and beneath glabrous or sometimes minutely puberulous on the midrib beneath; base of the lamina cuneate to rounded
91Midrib (at least the lower part) impressed above; base of lamina cordate to rounded. — Borneo
91'Midrib of lamina slightly prominent to flat; base of lamina usually cuneate to rounded
92Basal bracts semicircular to suborbicular with a rounded apex, imbricate, covering 1/3-2/3 of the receptacle. — Widespread
92'Basal bracts (broadly) ovate, not (or only basally) imbricate with an obtuse to acute or to rounded apex, covering up to 1/3 (or 1/2) of the receptacle
93Apex of the lamina acuminate, usually with an acute acumen; basal bracts ovate, not or only imbricate at the base. — Widespread
93'Apex of the lamina rounded to obtuse, or if acuminate, then with an obtuse acumen; basal bracts semicircular to broadly ovate, ± imbricate
94Base of the lamina and the lower part of the margin not (or hardly) callose; smaller veins of the lamina, even the reticulum ± clearly visible beneath; basal bracts usually covering 1/2 or more of the fig receptacle. — Widespread
94'Base of the lamina and (at least) the lower part of the margin ± distinctly callose; smaller veins of the lamina usually not clearly visible to obscure; basal bracts covering up to 1/2 of the fig receptacle
95Lateral veins 6-10 pairs; apex of the lamina (usually) short-acuminate. — Widespread
95'Lateral veins 10-13 pairs; apex of the lamina (usually) rounded. — Sumatra?, Malay Peninsula
96Basal bracts 0.5-2.5(-3) mm long
96'Basal bracts 3-8(-10) mm long
97Ostiole open, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts not or slightly imbricate
97'Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate
98Lamina ± densely puberulous on the veins beneath. — Malay Peninsula
98'Lamina glabrous beneath
99Stipules glabrous. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
99'Stipules yellowish sericeous. — Malay Peninsula
100Basal lateral veins up to 1/20-1/10 the length of the lamina; apex of the lamina short-acuminate. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Philippines
100'Basal lateral veins up to usually 1/4-1/3 the length of the lamina; apex of the lamina usually rounded. — Sumatra?, Malay Peninsula
101Indumentum on various parts (as stipules and midrib of the lamina beneath) brown floccose-tomentose. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
101'Indumentum not floccose-tomentose
102Leafy twigs (and often also on other parts) with abundant small dark brown appressed hairs; tertiary venation ± prominent beneath
102'Leafy twigs without such hairs or if present, then very sparse and inconspicuous; tertiary venation (almost) flat beneath
103Petiole 0.5-1 cm long; apex of the lamina rounded; tertiary venation of the lamina slightly prominent (rather inconspicuous). — Java, Borneo (southern)
103'Petiole (0.5-)1-2.5 cm long; apex of the lamina acuminate to rounded; tertiary venation prominent (and conspicuous). — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo
104Ostiole ± open, the upper 3 ostiolar bracts not or partly imbricate
104'Ostiole closed, the 3 upper ostiolar bracts clearly imbricate
105Basal lateral veins up to 1/10-1/4 the length of the lamina
105'Basal lateral veins up to 1/4-1/2 the length of the lamina
106Fig receptacle 0.3-0.6 cm diam. when dry; basal bracts 1-2 mm long. — Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo
106'Fig receptacle (0.5-)0.7-1.2 cm diam. when dry; basal bracts 3-5 mm long. — Sumatra, Borneo
107Lateral veins 6-10 pairs, the basal pair unbranched, sometimes faintly branched. — Widespread
107'Lateral veins (3-)4-6 pairs, the basal pair branched. — Widespread
108Lateral veins 10-13 pairs. — Sumatra?, Malay Peninsula
108'Lateral veins (3-)4-8(-9) pairs
109Basal bracts 3-5 mm long; apex of the lamina rounded. — Java, Borneo (southern)
109'Basal bracts 5-8 mm long; apex of the lamina acuminate
110Base of lamina auriculate to cordulate; fig receptacle depressed-globose. — Java
110'Base of lamina cuneate to rounded; fig receptacle subglobose to ovoid to ellipsoid to obovoid. — Widespread