1Flowers essentially bisexual, the male part adnate to the ovary.
1'Flowers truly unisexual or apparently so (in Mal.).
2Anther-loculi 4 (in Mal.) on a 3-lobed organ interpreted as 3 fused stamens with central 2-locular anther and a l-locular anther on each side. Leaves of widespread species usually finely serrate. Fruit white, greenish or yellowish, rarely tinged violet or pinkish, the tip sometimes dark violet-purple
2'Anther-loculi 2 on a narrowly clavate organ, i.e. apparently one stamen with a 2-locular anther. Leaves usually very coarsely serrate. Fruit red, rarely black
3Male flowers bracteate with 1-2 (-5) stamens; female flowers naked. Shrubs or trees 2.5-24 m tall
3'Male flowers with involucre and numerous stamens in a cone-like structure; female flowers in rounded ovate bracts with long caudate apices. Herbs or subshrubs