1Rhizome long-creeping, fronds scattered at intervals of up to 7 cm.
1'Rhizome short-creeping, fronds tufted or spaced at intervals of at most 2 cm
2Paraphyses peltate only (often completely absent in old sori), usually opaque with lumina of central cells almost entirely filled with wall material, lamina usually asymmetrically truncate below the spike
2'Paraphyses with laterally affixed blades nearly always present, usually translucent, lamina usually gradually and symmetrically narrowed below the spike
3Rhizome scales with dentate to ciliate margin, all cells thick-walled
3'Rhizome scales entire or almost so, central cells thick-walled, marginal cells thin-walled
4Sori completely covering the spike, the latter usually narrow, linear, 0.1-0.2 (rarely 1) cm wide
4'Sori leaving a clear marginal and sometimes also a narrow costal zone free, spike relatively wide, to 2 cm wide
5Rhizome short, fronds tufted, scales dull with a dark brown centre and a lighter margin, lamina generally 1-2 cm wide
5'Rhizome more widely creeping, fronds scattered at intervals of up to 2 cm, scales uniformly light brown, glossy or iridescent, lamina generally 3 or 4, sometimes 6 cm wide