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Trees, shrubs, or climbers, monoecious or (functionally) dioecious, often with aerial adventitious roots (hemi-epiphytes and root-climbers), rarely with uncinate hairs, usually with waxy glandular spots on the lamina beneath and/or in the nodes of leafy twigs. Leaves spirally arranged, distichous, (sub)opposite (or subverticillate); stipules fully amplexicaul to lateral, mostly free. Inflorescences with an urceolate receptacle, entirely enclosing the flowers (even at anthesis), bisexual or (functionally) unisexual, pronouncedly protogynous, the orifice more or less tightly closed by bracts; Fruit a drupelet or an achene. Seed with endosperm, embryo (almost) straight with flat and equal or ± curved with conduplicate cotyledons.


Benth. & Hook. 1880 – In: Gen. Pl. p 346
Trécul 1847 – In: Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 77, 138
Engl. 1888 – In: Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3. p 88
Miq. in Mart. 1852 – In: Fl. Bras. p 83
Corner 1962 – In: Gard. Bull. Singapore 19. p 210
Bureau 1873 – In: DC., Prodr. 17. 282, 287
C.C. Berg 1998 – In: Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. p 360
Dalla Torre & Harms 1900: Gen. Siph. p 122