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Trees. Leaves alternate, pari- pinnate, 2-10-jugate. Stipules foliaceous, free, rarely connate at the lower half. Inflorescences solitary or gregarious, paniculate or racemose; bracts and bracteoles small, often caducous or sometimes present at anthesis. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, shortly pedicelled or subsessile. Petals 1, usually fleshy, rudimentary ones often wanting. Stamens 10 (9 + 1), uppermost one free and reduced to a short staminode, the remaining 9 shortly and obliquely united at the base and sheath-like, the united part often hairy on both surfaces; 2 upper ones fertile with elongate filaments and ovoid or oblong, longitudinally dehiscing, dorsifixed anthers; 7 lower ones with shorter filaments and with or without small, imperfect anthers. Ovary with a short, free stipe, 2-5- (or more-)ovuled; style filiform, often recurvate; stigma small. Seeds few, black, shining, with a large fleshy aril at the base; cotyledons split; endosperm absent.


?Moluccas present, Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Philippines (Philippines present); Sulawesi (Sulawesi present); Sumatera (Sumatera present), SE Asia present, W Africa present, W Java present
A genus of 18-20 species, distributed in W Africa(Gabon, 1 sp.) and SE Asia; 15 of them in Malesia (Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, W Java, Philippines, Celebes, and ?Moluccas).


Plants of some species produce strong and durable wood of excellent quality, resin or wood-oil, medicine, tannin, etc. See


The present treatment is mainly based on the comprehensive revision of this genus published by De Wit (1949: 5-82).


Benth. 1867 – In: Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. pl. 1. 1003.
de Wit 1949 – In: Bull. Bot. Gard. Buitenzorg. p 5
Watson & Dallwitz 1983: Gen. Leg.-Caesalp. p 53
Cowan & Polhill 1981 – In: Polhill & Raven, Adv. Leg. Syst. 1. 132.