Schleichera oleosa

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Schleichera oleosa


Tree, up to 40 m high, dbh up to 2 m, but usually much less; Leaves (2- or) 3-(or 4-)jugate; Inflorescences 6-15 cm long, sparsely hairy. Flowers pale yellow or pale green. Sepal lobes ovate to deltoid, c. 1.5 mm high, obtuse to acute, thin-hairy on both sides, the margin ciliate (and glandular), deciduous in fruit. Stamens: Fruits broad-ovoid to subglobular, c. 15 by 13 mm when 1 -seeded, or transversely ellipsoid, slightly flattened, somewhat bilobed, 17-20 by c. 18 by 14 mm when 2-seeded, narrowed at base, pointed at apex, granular, yellow. Seeds subglobular, c. 12 by 10 by 8 mm;


Ambon present, Asia-Tropical: Jawa (Jawa present); Lesser Sunda Is. present; Maluku (Maluku present); Philippines (Philippines present); Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka present); Sumatera (Sumatera cultivated), Banda present, Central and SW Celebes present, Ceram present, Kai Islands present, Tropical SE Asia present, ever-wet W Malesia present, the islands of Saleyer, Kabaèna, and Muna present, western Deccan present
Tropical SE Asia from Sri Lanka and the western Deccan to Indo-China; in Malesia: Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Central and SW Celebes, the islands of Saleyer, Kabaèna, and Muna, Moluccas (Ambon, Banda, cited also from Ceram and the Kai Islands). Although cited by Miquel () from Sumatra, I saw only cultivated specimens from there, and none of them seen by him. As to the probably erroneous, old records for the Philippines, see Radlkofer (), and Merrill ( ). I am uncertain about the status of this tree in Malesia. It is possible that it is not autochthonous, but introduced by man. It has several uses and is often cultivated. The species thrives only in the drier parts, however, hence the distribution gap in ever-wet W Malesia. Tradesmen may have brought the seeds to several parts of the Archipelago, and it is interesting that the common Hindu name, kusam, is very like the most common name in Malesia, kusambi. See Carthaus ().


Wood for timber and especially for an excellent charcoal; bark used for dyeing and in native medicine. For a description of the timber, see p. 427. Young leaves eaten as a vegetable; fruits (arillode) eaten as a titbit; from the seed an oil is pressed which is used for several purposes, among others in native medicine and as a constituent of the true Makassar oil. See Heyne ().


Brandis 1874: For. Fl: 105: t. 20
Kanjilal & Das 1936 – In: Fl. Assam: 320
Coster 1923 – In: Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg: 138
Pierre 1895: Fl. Coch.: f. b.
Bedd. 1871: Fl. Sylv.: 1.119
Koord. & Vale-ton 1903 – In: Bijdr. Booms. Java: 177
Ochse & Bakh. 1931: Ind. Groent: 650: f. 397
Backer & Bakh. f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java: 136
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 874
Craib 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. Enum.: 328
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 516
Hiern 1875 – In: Hook. f., Fl. Br. India 1: 681
Dammerman 1926 – In: Nat. Tijd. Ned.-Indië: 42
Blume 1847 – In: Rumphia: 147
Willd. 1913: Atlas: t. 86
Gagnep. 1950: Fl. Indo-Chine: 988: f. 126
Nath 1963 – In: Fam. Burm. Flow. Pl.: 176
Japing & Oey Djoen Seng 1936: p. 552. – In: Tectona: f. 35
Merr. 1935: Comm. Lour.: 247
Merr. 1917: Int. Rumph.: 337
Steup 1938 – In: Trop. Natuur: 140