Lemna perpusilla

Primary tabs

Lemna perpusilla

Description

Small floating aquatic. Ovary with 1 orthotropous ovulum, style sub-apical, persistent. Fruit asymmetric, ellipsoid, laterally slightly compressed. Seed with 12-18 distinct longitudinal ribs, laterally slightly compressed.

Distribution

Ambon present, Aru Is present, Asia-Tropical: Borneo (Sabah present); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Maluku (Maluku present); Philippines (Philippines present); Sumatera (Sumatera present), Enggano present, Flores Sea present, Hawaian Is present, Kangean Is present, Lesser Sunda Is present, Luzon present, Madura present, Maikoor present, Mindanao present, New Caledonia present, Pacific: Fiji (Fiji present); Samoa (Samoa present); Tonga (Tonga present), Pacific Islands present, Tanah Djampea present, Timor present, W.-E. Java present, W.-E. New Guinea present, Worldwide in the tropics and sub-tropics present
Worldwide in the tropics and sub-tropics. In the Pacific islands in several Hawaian Is. (first 1895), Samoa (1893), Tonga (1926), Fiji (1842), New Caledonia; common in Malesia: Sumatra (also Enggano), Malay Peninsula, W.-E. Java (also Madura&Kangean Is.), Lesser Sunda Is. (Timor), Flores Sea (Tanah Djampea), North Borneo, Philippines (Luzon to Mindanao), Moluccas (Ambon; Aru Is.: Maikoor), and W.-E. New Guinea.

Notes

BACKER (1924) was the first to point out that L. minor does not occur in Malesia; he referred this material to L. paucicostata.
L. perpusilla is an extremely variable species. HEGELMAIER (1868) distinguished in his monograph 3 species, viz L. perpusilla (seed with 30-60 ribs, restricted to the eastern part of the U.S.A.), L. paucicostata (seed with 12-20 ribs, occurring in the tropics of the Old and the New Worlds; also in the S. and SE. parts of the U.S.A.) and L. angolensis (seed with 12-15 ribs, and moreover a conspicuous apical papilla on the frond, restricted to tropical Africa). L. angolensis, already earlier described a.sL.aequinoctialis byWELWiTSCH, is with respect to the seed character within the range of variation of L. paucicostata. The development of the apical papilla on the frond is subject to so much variation, even within one sample, that it is not useful as a specific character. THOMPSON () who investigated L. perpusilla and L. paucicostata in the U.S.A. found the number of ribs on the seeds of these species so variable that he could not distinguish the species with certainty, and for that reason he regarded them as forms of one species.
Some flat, membranous forms with a distinct venation, but otherwise not different from L. perpusilla, have been distinguished as L. perpusilla var. trinervis, L. paucicostata var. mem-branacea or as L. trinervis. They have been recorded from America and India. In my opinion they represent only forms of L. perpusilla, induced by poor environmental circumstances. MCCLURE & ALSTON (), however, found L. trinervis to be quite distinct from L. perpusilla with respect to the flavonoid chemistry. Therefore, membranous forms require re-investigation.
The fronds from New Guinea are often twice as long as wide, in contrast to those from the rest of Malesia.
MERRILL () referred L. gibba (non L.) BLANCO to L. paucicostata (= L. perpusilla). As BLANCO recorded the occurrence of 2 roots, his plants must have belonged to Spirodela punctata. MERRILL'S representative specimen Sp. Bl. 131 belongs to L. perpusilla.

Citation

Koord. 1898 – In: Med. Lands Plan-tentuin: 305
MASAMUNE 1957 – In: Sc. Rep. Kanazawa Univ.: 94
Ridl. 1923 – In: J. Mal. Br. R. As. Soc.: 106
Hook.f. 1893 – In: Fl. Br. Ind.: 556
JUMELLE 1937 – In: Humbert, Fl. Madag. fam. 32: 2
JUNGH. 1853: pp. 285-287. – In: Java, ed. 2
LARSEN 1962 – In: Dansk Bot. Ark.: 136
BACK. 1928 – In: Onkruidfl. Jav. Suikerr.: 175
GRIFF. 1851 – In: Not.: 216
DAUBS 1965: Monogr. Lemnac.: 27
Koord. 1911 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: 268
MCCANN 1942 – In: J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc.: 153
FISCHER 1931 – In: Gamble, Fl. Madras 3: 1593
HEGELM. 1868: Lemnac: 141-142
FRANCH. & SAV. 1879 – In: En. Pl. Jap.: 12
BROWN 1901: pp. 202-203. – In: Fl. Trop. Afr.
BROWN 1901 – In: Fl. Trop. Afr.: 203
GUILLAUMIN 1962 – In: Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris n.s.: 213
DAUBS 1965: Monogr. Lemnac: 25-27
PRAIN 1903 – In: Bengal Pl.: 841
Miq. 1855 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 221
BACK. 1924 – In: Handb. Fl. Java: 2
USTERI 1905 – In: Vierteljahrschr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich: 453
Merr. 1935 – In: Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.: 100
HEGELM. 1868: Lemnac.: 139
LOUR. 1867 – In: J. Bot.: 115
BACK. & BAKH.f. 1968 – In: Fl. Java: 127
Miq. 1852: Pl. Jungh.: 169
BACK. 1949 – In: Bekn. Fl. Java, (em. ed.): fam. 226, p. 2
JUNGH. 1845: Reisen: 42
GAGNEP. 1942 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C.: 1197
LARSEN 1962 – In: Dansk Bot. Ark.: 135
Ridl. 1900 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc.: 179
HEND. 1928 – In: Gard. Bull. S. S.: 352
HEGELM. 1895: pp. 294-296. – In: Bot. Jahrb.
HEGELM. 1895 – In: Bot. Jahrb.: 296
Merr. 1912: Fl. Manila: 134
Ridl. 1907 – In: Mat. Fl. Mal. Pen.: 52
GIARDELLI 1959: pp. 584-590. – In: Darwinia
HUNDLEY & U CHIT KO KO 1961: List trees etc. Burma, ed. 3: 292
Ridl. 1925 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen.: 132
AUSTIN 1867 – In: A. Gray, Man. Bot., ed. 5: 479
F. M. BAILEY 1902 – In: Queensl. Fl.: 1700
TORREY 1895 – In: Bot. Jahrb.: 294
HEND. 1959: Mal. Wild Fl. Monocot.: 210
OHWI 1965: Fl. Japan: 265
THOMPSON 1897 – In: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard.: 33
CHRISTOPH. 1935 – In: B. P. Bish. Mus. Bull.: 44
BOLD. 1916: Zakfl. Landbouwstr. Java: 125
STEEN. 1932: Arch. f. Hydrobiol.: 291
KURZ 1876 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng.: 153
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip.: 190
WRIGHT 1903 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Bot.: 188
MITRA 1958 – In: Fl. Pl. E. India: 86
TRIM. 1898 – In: Handb. Fl. Ceyl.: 366
Benth. 1878 – In: Fl. Austr.: 163
KURZ 1864 – In: Nat. Tijd. N. I.: 220
HASSK. 1844: Cat. Hort. Bog.: 53, 302
GUILLAUMIN 1948: Fl. Nouv.-Caléd: 48
NAVES 1882: Novis. App.: 296
PARHAM 1964: Pl. Fiji Is.: 268
Hook.f. 1893 – In: Fl. Br. Ind.: 556
GUPPY 1906: pp. 407-408. – In: Observ. Nat. Pac.
LOUR. 1866 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Lond.: 266
GUPPY 1906: pp. 407-408. – In: Observ. Nat. Pac.
MASAMUNE 1943: Fl. Kainantensis: 394
BURK. 1935: Dict.: 1328
MASSART 1895 – In: Bull. Soc. R. Bot. Belg.: 184