Leea indica

Primary tabs

Leea indica

Description

Shrub, treelet or small tree, 2-10(-16) m, multior single stemmed, frequently stilt-rooted; Leaves (1-)2- or 3-pinnate, leaflets 7-∞. Inflorescences (5-)10-25 (-40) cm long, usually broad and lax, rarely condensed, glabrous to pubescent, rarely soft or bristly hairy or papillose; Flowers 5-merous, greenish-white. Ovary (4-) 6 (-8)-celled, style 1-2½ mm. Fruit 5-10(-15) mm ø, purple-black;

Distribution

Andaman present, Asia-Temperate: China South-Central (Yunnan present); Hainan (Hainan present), Asia-Tropical: Assam (Assam present); Bangladesh (Bangladesh present); Bismarck Archipelago (Bismarck Archipelago present); Borneo present; Cambodia (Cambodia present); East Himalaya (Sikkim present); India present; Jawa (Jawa present); Laos (Laos present); Malaya present (Singapore present); Maluku (Maluku present); New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present); Sulawesi (Sulawesi present); Sumatera (Sumatera present); Thailand (Thailand present), Burma present, Ceylon present, Espiritu Santo present, Kandavu present, Kwangsi present, Lesser Sunda Is present, Levu present, Moala present, N. & S. Vietnam present, N. Australia present, Nepal present, New Hebrides present, Nicobar Is present, Ovalau present, Pacific: Fiji (Fiji present), Santa Cruz Is present, Solomon Is present, Tonga Is present, Vanau present, Viti Levu present, from Madras and Bombay northwards to Punjab present
Ceylon, India (from Madras and Bombay northwards to Punjab, Sikkim, Assam), Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, N. & S. Vietnam, China (Yunnan, Kwangsi, Hainan), Andaman and Nicobar Is.; in Malesia: Malaya, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea (incl. Bismarck Archipelago); N. Australia, Solomon Is., Santa Cruz Is., New Hebrides (Espiritu Santo), Fiji (Vanau, Levu, Ovalau, Viti Levu, Kandavu, Moala), ?Tonga Is..

Notes

Many attempts have been made to segregate this common wide-spread species into smaller taxonomic units, particularly by MIQUEL who studied plants from the area where the greatest morphological diversity occurs. The majority of these segregates have been established on leaflet characters. One entity, somewhat distinctive in flower by the deep sinuses of the staminodial tube, occurs from Burma to Malaya together with the normal form of L. indica, overlapping in vegetative and other characters. It was considered to be specifically distinct by GRIFFITH, who described it as L. gigantea. The situation closely parallels that found in the Madagascan material of L. guineensis where the same deep sinuses occur. In L. guineensis this character occurs allopatrically in an insularly isolated population whilst in ‘L. gigante’ the character occurs sympatrieally within the range of L. indica.
The remainder of the material shows rather interesting trends, particularly in leaf vestiture and dimensions. Within the area from India across to China and southward to Java the leaflets tend to be more or less glabrous and apparently have a trend to increase in size, culminating in large leaflet forms in Java. In the herbarium leaflets of all size classes may be found on plants from Java whilst, as far as can be ascertained, large leaflet forms do not occur in India. This trend is particularly apparent in the dimensions of the terminal leaflets. Eastwards across the Lesser Sunda Islands leaf pubescence tends to increase, culminating in very pubescent forms in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. The Solomon Islands have been very intensively collected and are relatively over-represented in the collections compared to other areas, but here all but two collections are more or less glabrous. Further eastwards to Fiji both pubescent and glabrous forms occur, but there is a decrease in the leaf size so that the glabrous form cannot be separated from the material from India or Ceylon.
The two specimens from the Solomon Is., BSIP 5371 (Rob Roy I.) and NGF 16378 (Bougainville), are unusual in having very large leaflets (c. 25 by 12 cm) which are hairy on the nerves, whilst the remainder of the Solomon Islands material is glabrous. Furthermore the stem, rachises, stipules and inflorescences are covered with bristle-like hairs, a feature somewhat paralleling the condition found in ‘L. cumingii’ of the L. guineensis complex. However, although certain general trends in leaf dimension and vestiture can be recognized, random exceptions occur in all areas and no absolute trends can be delimited. So within New Guinea occasional glabrous leaved species occur which cannot be separated from material from normal populations in Malaya. The problem is to obtain uniform comparable samples from the wide-spread populations of a species common in populated areas and frequently subjected to cutting and coppicing.

Citation

Clarke 1881 – In: J. Bot. p 139
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 384
LAUT. 1925 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 534
VIDAL 1883: Sinopsis: 21. t. 33, f. 1
Roxb. 1824 – In: Fl. Ind., ed. 1. p 470
KURZ 1873 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 65
MOON 1824: Cat. Pl. Ceyl. p 18
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 317
TALBOT 1909 – In: For. Fl. Bomb. Pres. p 327
BRANDIS 1906: Ind. Trees. p 179
Merr. 1921: En. Born. p 369
BRANDIS 1874: For. Fl. p 102
COOKE 1902 – In: Fl. Bomb. p 260
TRIM. 1893 – In: Fl. Ceyl. p 297
King 1896 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 412
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 386
Ridl. 1922 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 485
Clarke 1881 – In: J. Bot. p 140
LAWS. 1875 – In: Fl. Br. Ind. p 666
GIBBS 1914 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Bot. p 65
GRIFF. 1854 – In: Not. Pl. As. p 698
WILLD. 1912 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. p 51
HASSK. 1844: Cat. Hort. Bog. p 168
WILLD. 1854 – In: Ic. Pl. As. t. 644
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 384, 385
LAUT. 1912 – In: Nova Guinea. p 831
DRURY 1864 – In: Handb.Ind.Fl. p 181
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 387
BACKER 1911: Schoolfl. Java. p 255
K. SCH. & LAUT. 1900: Fl. Schutzgeb. p 430
Miq. 1859 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 611
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
KURZ 1875 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 179
A. GRAY 1854: Bot. Wilkes U.S. Expl. Exp. p 274
Roxb. 1832 – In: Fl. Ind., ed. 2. p 658
CRAIB 1912 – In: Aberd. Univ. Stud. p 43
GRAHAM 1839: Cat. Pl. Bomb. Vic. p 33
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 318
PARHAM 1964: Pl. Fiji Isl. p 154
F.v.M. 1876 – In: Descr. Not. p 36
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 11
Merr. 1908 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 80
WILLD. 1886: Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. p 94
WILLD. 1863 – In: Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. p 99
GRIFF. 1875 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 178
ROEM. & SCHULTES 1819 – In: Syst. Veg. p 705
RECHINGER 1914 – In: Denkschr. Kais. Ak. Wiss. Wien. p 574
GAMBLE & FISCH. 1918 – In: Fl. Pres. Madras. p 240
VOIGT 1845: Hort. Sub. Calc. p 30
KURZ 1876 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 124
LAUT. 1925 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 534
LAUT. 1925 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 530
BANERJEE 1965 – In: Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. p 33
COWAN & COWAN 1929: Trees N. Beng. p 40
COWAN & COWAN 1929: Trees N. Beng. p 40
WILLD. 1877 – In: Fl. Burma. p 279
WHITE 1929 – In: J. Arn. Arb. p 237
BACKER & BAKH.f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java. p 94
PRAIN: Beng. Pl. p 239
KANJILAL & DAS 1936 – In: Fl. Assam. p 307
K. SCH. 1888 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 208
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 384
G. DON 1831 – In: Gen. Hist. p 712
K. SCH. & LAUT. 1900: Fl. Schutzgeb. p 430
F.-VILL. 1880: Nov. App. p 50
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 384
Roxb. 1827 – In: Syst. Veg. Cur. post. 70
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 14
KURZ 1870: Rep. Veg. And. Isl. p 34
SANTAPAU 1953 – In: Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. p 56
RIDSDALE 1974: p. 95. – In: Blumea. f. 4/6-8, 5/1-7, 8/5
King 1896 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 414
VAL. 1907 – In: Bull. Dép. Agr. Ind. Néerl. p 31
WINKLER 1909 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 537
CORNER & WATANABE 1969: Ill Guide Trop. Pl. p 454
F.v.M. 1876 – In: Descr. Not. p 37
SCHEFF. 1876 – In: Ann. Jard. Bot. Btzg. p 15
WILLD. 1861: Sum. p 202
K. SCH. 1888 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 208
BRANDIS 1906: Ind. Trees. p 179
BAILEY 1899 – In: Queensl. Fl. p 284
CAV. 1789: p. 372. – In: Dissert. t. 218
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 384, 385, 387, 388
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
Roxb. 1824 – In: Fl. Ind., ed. 1. p 471
WILLD. 1885: Phan. Cuming. p 104
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 385, 388
BACKER & BAKH.f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java. p 94
Benth. 1863 – In: Fl. Austr. p 451
TALBOT: Trees Shrubs Bomb. Pres., ed. 2. p 154
BRANDIS 1906: Ind. Trees. p 179
GRIFF. 1877 – In: Fl. Burma. p 280
Ridl. 1911 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. p 87
SPRENG. 1824 – In: Syst. Veg. p 670
THW. 1859: En. Pl. Zeyl. p 64
WARB. 1891 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 368
GRIFF. 1854 – In: Ic. Pl. As. f. 2
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 852
Ridl. 1922: p. 484. – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. f. 48
HUNDLEY & U CHIT KO Ko 1961: List Tr. Shr. Herbs & Climb. Burma. p 55
VOIGT 1845: Hort. Sub. Calc. p 30
Ridl. 1922 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 486
BACKER & BAKH.f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java. p 94
HEMSL. 1895: Kew Bull. p 134
W. & A. 1834: Prod. p 132
WARB. 1891 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 369
HASSK. 1844: Cat. Hort. Bog. p 168
HASSK. 1848: Pl. Jav. Rar. p 453
ex MASTERS 1898: p. 242. – In: Gard. Chron. f. 92
K. SCHINZ 1888 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 208
Roxb. 1832 – In: Fl. Ind., ed. 2. p 657
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 848
WARB. 1891 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 369
Roxb. 1814: Hort. Beng. p 18
G. DON 1831 – In: Gen. Hist. p 712
BACKER 1911: Schoolfl. Java. p 256
Miq.: Sum. p 202
SPRENG. 1824 – In: Syst. Veg. p 670
MERR. & PERRY 1941 – In: J. Arn. Arb. p 380
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 853
SPRENG. 1827 – In: Syst. Veg. Cur. post. 70
KANJILAL & DAS 1936 – In: Fl. Assam. p 306
HOME 1881: Year in Fiji. p 264
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 318
DUTHIE 1903 – In: Upper Gangetic Pl. p 176
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 853
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
Corner 1940: p. 97. – In: Ways. Trees. Atlas pl. 1
DC. 1824 – In: Prod. p 635
BACKER 1911: Schoolfl. Java. p 256
WILLIAMS 1905 – In: Bull. Herb. Boiss. p 217
GAGNEP. 1912 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 941
K. SCHINZ 1895 – In: Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. p 53
BURGER 1972: Seedl. Trop. Tr. Shr. SE. Asia: 381. f. 155
WILLD. 1925 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 531
Engl. 1898 – In: Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. p 130
HARA 1966: Fl. E. Himal. p 200
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 386, 387
Ridl. 1916 – In: Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. p 32
BONSTEDT 1931: Parey’s Blumengart. p 895
Miq. 1863 – In: Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. p 96
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
Ridl. 1922 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 484
Merr. 1906 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Suppl. 89
K. & V. 1903 – In: Bijdr. p 8
WHITE 1923 – In: Proc. R. Soc. Queensl. p 43
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 317
SCHEFF. 1876 – In: Ann. Jard. Bot. Btzg. p 15
Merr. 1921: En. Born. p 368
SCHMIDT 1915 – In: Bot. Tidsskr. p 330
LAUT. 1924 – In: Nova Guinea. p 138
HAINES 1910: For. Fl. Chota Nagpur. p 280
DALZ. & GIBS. 1861: Bomb. Fl. p 41
HAINES 1925 – In: Bot. Bihar & Orissa. p 208
Clarke 1971: Fl. E. Himal., 2nd Rep. p 79
K. & V. 1903 – In: Bijdr. p 12
SEEM. 1865: Fl. Vit. p 44
LAUT. 1910 – In: Nova Guinea. p 302
LAUT. 1924 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 534
CHITTENDEN 1951 – In: Diet. Gard. p 1143