Leea guineensis

Primary tabs

Leea guineensis

Description

Shrub, sometimes with a creeping rootstock, or ± herbaceous branches, or tree 1-5(-10) m; Leaves (1-)2- or 3(-4)-pinnate, leaflets numerous. Inflorescences (3-) 10-25 (-40) cm long, compact to lax, less frequently condensed, rusty pubescent, less frequently glabrous or hairy, rarely woolly; Flowers 5-merous, red to reddish orange, staminal tube red to citrous white. Ovary (4-) 6 (-8)-celled, style 1-2¼ mm. Fruit 5-15 mm Ø, red;

Distribution

Andaman Is present, Asia present, Asia-Temperate: Taiwan (Taiwan present), Asia-Tropical: Borneo absent; Cambodia (Cambodia present); India present; Jawa (Jawa present); Laos (Laos present); Malaya present; Philippines (Philippines present); Sumatera (Sumatera present); Thailand (Thailand present), Bourbon present, Burma present, Lesser Sunda Is present, Madagascar present, Madras to Assam present, Mauritius present, Micronesia present, N. Celebes present, Palau present, Tropical Africa present
Tropical Africa; Madagascar, Bourbon, Mauritius; Asia: India (Madras to Assam), Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Andaman Is., southwards becoming very rare; in Malesia: Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (apparently absent from Borneo), Philippines (common), N. Celebes (rare); further in Taiwan and Micronesia (Palau). .

Notes

In the present circumscription the species shows a wide range of variability, both geographically and ecologically. It is undoubtedly a complex species composed of overlapping entities which cannot be satisfactorily delimited from each other, these entities sometimes having different ecological preferences. Previous workers, particularly in the Philippines have created many small segregate species, which can no longer be maintained as with increased material available all degrees of intermediates are found to exist. Most of these taxa were separated only by minor vegetative differences. The conclusion that there is but one variable species in Asia and Malesia independently concurs with that reached by GAGNEPAIN (1910) in his essay on the classification of the Asiatic species of Leea and that of BANERJEE & BABU (1971) on the conspecificity of L. aurantiaca and L. acuminata. Comparison of the African and Asiatic material of ‘L. guineensi’ and ‘L. manillensis sensu lat’ showed that no clear cut differences could be found in herbarium material other than vague suggestions from the field notes that the colour of the staminodial tube might be different in living material; morphological characters of the leaves and flowers completely overlap.
Within the Asiatic perimeters of the variability there are clearly two ecological forms, one of shaded forest occurring in Malaya, Sumatra and Java, the other of secondary vegetation occurring in mainland Asia and in the Philippines. Within the latter area a vast range of forms is encountered and here the taxon appears to replace L. indica as a member of secondary vegetation.
Several morphological trends are apparent but none is clearly demarcated from the parent stock. Of these the entity ‘L. manillensis’ commonly occurs from Taiwan to the Philippines. It is characterized by small leaf dimensions and usually by the presence of hairy domatia. However, all degrees of intermediates are to be found between this entity and ‘L. negrosense” with leaflets which are larger and somewhat coriaceous, or glabrous or sparsely pubescent. The most distinctive entity has woolly hairy stems and setaceous to hispid hairs on the upper leaf surface, this may be a semi-stable form within the Philippines, but again intermediates exist with the parent population. Previously this entity was given specific rank as ‘L. cumingii'. There is a parallel form from the Solomon Islands in the L. indica complex. The Indian material shows a less wide range of variation, but in the area Thailand to Vietnam a further morphological leaf form occurs which may well be an expression of an edge of range effect. The interrelationships of these different leaf forms can only be further resolved by ecological and population studies.

Citation

ROLFE 1885 – In: J. Bot. p 211
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 316
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 13
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 13
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 13
BOJ. 1837: Hort. Maurit. p 61
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 11
VIDAL 1885: Phan. Cuming. p 104
VIDAL 1885: Phan. Cuming. p 104
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 851
STEUD. 1849 – In: Norn. Bot., ed. 2. p 21
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 12
HAINES 1925 – In: Bot. Bihar & Orissa. p 207
STEUD. 1840 – In: Norn. Bot., ed. 2. p 21
Wall. 1877 – In: Fl. Burma. p 278
LAUT. 1936 – In: J. Dep. Agr. Kyushu Imp. Univ. p 362
LIU 1962: Illustr. Nat. Introd. Lign. Pl. Taiwan. p 851
HUTCH. & DALZ. 1937: Fl. W. Trop. Afr. p 304
GAGNEP. 1912 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 941
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 387
WALP. 1886: Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. p 94
King 1896 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 415
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 386, 387
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 386
BACKER & BAKH.f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java. p 94
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 386
KANJILAL & DAS 1936 – In: Fl. Assam. p 304
Clarke 1886: Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. p 94
ex KURZ 1873 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 65
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 317
VIDAL 1886: Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. p 93
Clarke 1881 – In: J. Bot. p 163
C. B. ROB. 1911 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 209
Miq. 1921: En. Born. p 369
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 386
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 321
HARA 1966: Fl. E. Himal. p 199
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 383
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
WALP. 1845 – In: Repert. p 378
BANERJEE & BABU 1971 – In: Ind. For. p 19
Miq. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 12
BACKER 1911: Schoolfl. Java. p 256
LAUT. 1933: Fl. Micronesia. p 208
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 386
C. B. ROB. 1911 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 210
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 383
BROWN 1921 – In: Min. Prod. Philip. For. p 206
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 13
HUNDLEY & U CHIT KO KO 1961: List Tr. Shr. Herbs & Climb. Burma. p 54
RIDSDALE 1974: p. 92. – In: Blumea. f. 4/2-5, with full synonymy.
BRANDIS 1906: Ind. Trees. p 179
ex CLARKE 1881 – In: J. Bot. p 141
GAMBLE & FISCH. 1918 – In: Fl. Pres. Madras. p 239
Merr. 1903: Philip. Bur. For. Bull. p 36
WALP. 1918: Sp. Blanc. p 247
HUTCH. & DALZ. 1928 – In: Fl. W. Trop. Afr. p 479
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 388
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 387
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 846
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 383
CRAIB 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. En. p 320
Wall. 1971: Fl. E. Himal., 2nd Rep. p 78
WIGHT 1854 – In: Ic. Pl. As. t. 78
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. p 383
JACKSON 1895 – In: Ind. Kew. p 48
CRAIB 1912 – In: Aberd. Univ. Stud. p 43
Hook.f. 1849: Niger Fl. p 268
GAGNEP. 1950: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 855
Miq. 1859 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 612
ex KURZ 1873 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 66
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip. p 13
WALP. 1912: Fl. Manila. p 312
SUESSENG. 1953 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 383, 387
BRANDIS 1906: Ind. Trees. p 179
Merr. 1906 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Suppl. 89
LI 1963: Woody Fl. Taiwan: 524. f. 203
KURZ 1870: Rep. Veg. And. Isl. p 34
COWAN & COWAN 1929: Trees N. Beng. p 40
WALP. 1908 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 419
Wall. 1889 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Bot. p 13
Wall. 1875 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 179
KANEHIRA 1931 – In: Bot. Mag. Tokyo. p 295