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Shrubs to trees, dioecious; Leaves simple, decussate; Stipules absent (Malesia). Inflorescences axillary, imperfectly cymose, often thyrsoid, staminate ones with several flowers per node, pistillate ones generally with one flower or flowers in small groups per node; Flowers actinomorphic; Fruits regmas, red, exo- and mesocarp detaching, endocarp woody, dehiscing into 2-valved cocci from base to apex, completely loculicidal, partly septicidal; Seeds obovoid, at most one developing per locule, the others abortive, shiny, caruncle yellowish to black when dry, orange to deep red when fresh, consisting of short to longer papillae.


Asia-Tropical: Australasia: New Caledonia: present west Pacific: present
About 25 species, the majority endemic in New Caledonia, the rest in Australia and the West Pacific, three species in Malesia.


Austrobuxus was synonymised for a long time with Longetia Baill. ex Müll.Arg. (the name Longetia is younger than Austrobuxus, but it was generally used as accepted name). McPherson & Tirel (1987) redefined the generic circumscriptions, both genera are separated based on different pollen types. Longetia is currently a monotypic genus of New Caledonia, while Austrobuxus is the species richest genus within the Picrodendraceae with also its main centre of distribution in New Caledonia.


S.S.Larsen in Chayam. & Welzen - in Fl. Thailand. 2005: 105
Welzen & P.I.Forst. - in Nordic J. Bot. 2010: 189
Guillaumin, Fl. Anal. Synopt. Nouv.-Calédonie. 1948: 181
Corner - in Wayside Trees Malaya. 1940: 260
Miq. - in Kew Bull. 1980: 597
Steenis - in Blumea. 1964: 362
G.L.Webster - in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1994: 57
Airy Shaw - in Kew Bull. 1974: 303
Miq. - in Kew Bull. 1981: 258
Whitmore - in Tree Fl. Malaya. 1973: 63
Miq. - in Kew Bull. 1975: 43
Airy Shaw - in Kew Bull. 1971: 506
Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum. 2001: 90
McPherson & Tirel - in Fl. Nouv.-Calédonie. 1987: 187
Müll.Arg. - in DC., Prodr. 15. 1866: 1254
P.I.Forst. - in Austrobaileya. 1997: 620