Viola arcuata

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Viola arcuata


Perennial; Leaves ½-3¾ by ¾-4¼ cm, (1.1-)l.3-2.3 times as broad as long, broadly hastate, sometimes ovate, broadly and deeply to shallowly cordate, with prominent basal lobes which are (3-)6-21 mm long, typically curved upwards and usually rounded, cuspidate to obtuse at apex, crenulate, rarely dentate on basal lobes, glabrous, rarely sparsely ciliate or pubescent on veins beneath, usually herbaceous, sometimes thicker and darker green; Stipules 4-14 by 1-3(-6) mm, generally prominent and sometimes leaf-like, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute to mu-cronate, dentate to shortly fimbrio-dentate, glabrous or rarely white to pale purple, with darker veins; Sepals 2½-5 by 1.2-2 mm, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acute, entire, glabrous, green or fuscous with scarious margins; Petals (1½-)2-4(-4½) times as long as broad, oblong to oblanceolate; Capsule 4-10 mm, oblong, glabrous.


Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical: India present; Jawa (Jawa present); Maluku (Maluku present); New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present); Sumatera (Sumatera present), Bum present, Luzon present, N. Burma present
India, N. Burma, China, Indo-China, in Malesia: Sumatra, Java, Philippines (Luzon), Moluccas (Bum), New Guinea. .


In its typical, widespread form V. arcuata is readily recognised by its glabrous, arcuate leaves and long prostrate stems. It varies in the size and marginal dissection of the stipules and in the presence or absence of bearding on the lateral petals, while some forms have thicker, more pubescent and deeply cordate leaves than is usual. Variation in these characters cannot be correlated with each other, or with any distributional pattern, and intermediates occur. No formal recognition of such variation is possible and much of it may be due to plants which occupy drier habitats than usual.


BACK. & SLOOT. 1924: Handb. Theeonkr: 177: t. 177
BACK. 1911: Schoolfl.: 65
Wall. 1835 – In: Trans. Med. Soc. Calc.: 227
BACK. 1911: Schoolfl.: 66
D.M. MOORE 1963 – In: Nova Guinea, Bot.: 178
Blume 1921 – In: Philip. J. Sc.: 710
KORTH. 1848 – In: Ned. Kruidk. Arch.: 357
BECKER 1916 – In: Beih. Bot. Centralbl.: 227
Miq. 1858 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 114
Ridl. 1935 – In: J. Bot.: 13
Koord. 1912 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: 629
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip.: 106
Koord. 1912 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: 629
Miq. 1858 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 114
BECKER 1921 – In: Philip. J. Sc.: 712
BECKER 1916 – In: Beih. Bot. Centralbl.: 226
BACK. & BAKH.f. 1963 – In: Fl. Java: 195
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip.: 104
Ridl. 1935 – In: J. Bot.: 14