Primary tabs



Usually dioecious shrubs to large trees up to 45 m tall. Yellowish to reddish brown soft fibrous bark weathering to gray, more or less fissured and peeling in short to long vertical strips. Leaves spirally placed, bifacially flattened, uninerved, the midrib flat or prominent, either with a distinct hypoderm or well developed accessory transfusion tissue but mostly with both, hypostomatic, or rarely with a few upper stomata, more or less narrowed at the base into a short petiole. The inverted ovule is completely enclosed in the leathery epimatium which often forms a crest at the distal end where it folds over the base of the ovule and the resulting structure is completely exposed above the receptacle. The seed is usually glaucous when immature and more or less green when mature (rarely with the seed cover becoming fleshy or flushed with red), the seed cover normally persistent even after drying.


Asia-Tropical, across the lower and southern latitudes present, all of the tropical highland forests present, throughout the Asian-Malesian tropical lowland forests present, throughout the southern temperate forests present
There are two slightly overlapping subgenera with 95 spp. across the lower and southern latitudes, throughout the southern temperate forests, all of the tropical highland forests, and throughout the Asian-Malesian tropical lowland forests with a few species reaching other tropical lowlands and others the Asian subtropics. In Malesia only subg. Foliolatus is represented. .


Miq. 1859 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 1071
RIDLEY 1925 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 280
FOXW. 1911 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 155
Blume 1827 – In: En. Pl. Jav. p 88
PILGER 1926 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 13. p 240
WASSCHER 1941 – In: Blumea. p 360
BENNETT 1838 – In: Bennett & R.Br., Pl. Jav. Rar. 1. p 35
GAUSSEN 1976 – In: Gymn. Act. & Foss. p 3
L.C. & A. RICH. 1826: Comm. Bot. Conif. & Cycad. p 124
EICHLER 1887 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 2. p 104
Koord. 1911 – In: Exk. Fl. Java. p 63
PILGER 1903 – In: Pfl. R. p 54
BENTH. & HOOK. f. 1880 – In: Gen. Pl. p 434
PARL. 1868 – In: DC., Prod. 16. p 507
BEISSNER 1891: Nadelholzk. p 193
K & 1904 – In: V. Bijdr. p 259
DE BOER 1866: Conif. Arch. Ind. p 12
Koord. 1918: Fl. Tjibodas. p 2
ENDL. 1847: Syn. Conif. p 206
ENDL. 1810 – In: Gen. Pl.
BUCHHOLZ & GRAY 1948 – In: J. Arn. Arb. p 54
RIDLEY 1911 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. p 56
Blume 1849 – In: Rumphia. p 212
PERSOON 1985 – In: Blumea. p 251
DE LAUB. 1978 – In: Kalikasan. p 133
HENKEL & HOCHSTETTER 1865: Synop. Nadel-hölz. p 377
PILGER 1908 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. p 4
DE LAUB. 1972 – In: Fl. Nouv. Caléd. et Dép. p 59