Primary tabs



Shrubs or trees, unarmed or prickly, tomentose at least on young parts; Leaves large, palmately lobed or digitately compound, stipules forming a bicuspid ligule within the terete petiole. Flowers in umbellules which are arranged racemosely along a rachis or in panicles; Petals 7-12, valvate, often falling at anthesis as a calyptra. Stamens as many as the petals; Ovary inferior, broadly obconic or subglobose, 7-12-celled; Fruit globose or ovoid, crowned by the disk and prominent stylar column;


Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; Jawa (Jawa present); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Philippines (Philippines absent); Sumatera (Sumatera present), Lesser Sunda Is present, Lombok present, SW. China present, W. Malesia present, eastern India present
6 spp. ranging from eastern India and SW. China to Malesia; 5 of the species occur in W. Malesia: Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Is. (Lombok). Formerly erroneously credited to the Philippines, cf. .


The genus comprises three well known species, each occupying distinct areas, except that the ranges of two overlap in Sumatra. In addition there are three very local and imperfectly known species.


cf. Steen. 1970 – In: Regn. Yeget. p 376
Visiani 1842 – In: Mem. Accad. Torino. p 262
Bth. 1865 – In: B. & H., Gen. Pl. 1. p 942
King 1898 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng. p 57
Boerl. 1887 – In: Ann. Jard. Bot. Btzg. p 107
Visiani 1890 – In: Handl. p 639
Koord. 1916 – In: Atlas. f. 664-666
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 747
Visiani 1863 – In: Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. p 10
Hutch. 1967 – In: Gen. Fl. Pl. p 71
Harms 1894 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3. p 32