Allophylus cobbe

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Allophylus cobbe

Description

Mostly a shrub (sometimes straggling to lian-oid) or treelet, more rarely a tree up to 25 m high, dbh 30 cm. Leaves mostly 3-foliolate, sometimes part or all of them 1- or 5-foliolate (if 1-foliolate, then lateral leaflets often represented by minute, subulate appendages); Inflorescences axillary, solitary or rarely 2 in one axil, simple to thyrsoid, up to 40 cm long, glabrous to densely pubescent, hairs mostly not distinctly stellately fascicled; Sepals 1-2.5 by 0.8-2 mm (the inner ones hardly longer, but distinctly broader than the outer), green to whitish, entire to denticulate, most-ly ciliolate, outside glabrous to sparsely appressed short-hairy mainly in the central part. Petals nail-shaped to spathulate, 1-2.2 mm, white, the claw about ⅔ of the entire length, blade entire to bilobed, scale very small to nearly equalling the blade, nearly glabrous to densely woolly along the whole margin of the petal, and especially of the scale, the latter moreover often bearded. Stamens c. 8, subequal, in male flowers exserted; Fruits mostly with only 1 meri-carp developed, globular (smaller ones) to obovoid and narrowed at the base (larger ones), 4.5-12.5 by 3.5-8 mm, smooth to slightly wrinkled, red (black to brown when dry), somewhat fleshy and almost glabrous when ripe.

Distribution

Asia-Tropical, Madagascar present, Pantropical present, S Africa present, S America present, SE Asia slightly penetrat-ing into the Subtropics present
Pantropical, in S America, S Africa, Madagascar, and SE Asia slightly penetrat-ing into the Subtropics; throughout Malesia.

Cytology

2n = 28:

Uses

The wood is reported to be very hard but not very durable; it is mainly used as a timber for temporary structures and indoors, e.g. for raft-ers. Canes and hilts are made from the wood, as well as beaters for the cotton fruits (Mindoro). In the Bismarck Archipelago, poles and branches are used for floats of outrigger canoes and for mark-ing the location of fish traps. Also used as fire-wood.
The pulped leaves, or an extraction or decoction of them, as well as a decoction of the roots and the bark, are used in native medicine against stomach-ache and fever. In Perak, a disease inside the mouth of children is cured with it. In Minda-nao, the scraped bark is applied to rigid abdomen, the bark to burns. The berries, though a bit sour, are eaten. In New Guinea fruits are used as a fish poison. See .

Notes

Like so many widely distributed species with a wide ecological amplitude, A. cobbe comprises a great number of local races. This is even so within Malesia, though the variability is here rather restricted compared with that shown by this species in Africa and South America. Within a restricted region each of these races usually characterizes a well-circumscribed habitat. The picture is simplest in W Malesia, especially in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. But even here most of the races turn out to be not sharply delimited against each other.
For the Malay Peninsula, Corner () distinguished between 5 varieties; he already cited, however, several inter- mediates that broke down their limits.
Turning to Malesia as a whole, the picture be- comes far more complicated, the delimitation of infraspecific taxa of more than local importance completely impossible. Thus 'A. javensis' and 'A. sumatranus\ both inland species from Java resp. Sumatra, represent a pair of well-circumscribed, closely related but in some points distinctly dif- ferent races. 'Allophy'lus cobbe var. glaber Corner' from the Malay Peninsula is intermediate between these two, overlapping both; the characters that consistently distinguish the first two races, are here variable. On the other hand, 'A. sumatranus' en- compasses nearly the whole range of variability of 'A. cobbe var. glaber Corner' and 'A. cobbe var. villosus Corner', thus breaking down the differ- enees between these two races from the Malay Peninsula.
Even the differences between races which in one region seem not to be closely related, characterizing very different habitats, may fade away in other regions. A fine example is given by 'A. timorensis' and 'A. racemosus'. In Java, these two races are well distinguishable; the former is restricted to the sandy beach and coastal rocks, the latter is an inland form. 'A. timorensis is distributed from the Malay Peninsula to far in the Pacific, and is rather uniform; only in New Guinea the range of variability is somewhat wider and here it intergrades completely with 'A. micrococcus", a form of coastal as well as inland habitats. Typical 'A. racemosus' is nearly restricted to Java; towards the East it grades into 'A. ternatus' which, in turn, in New Guinea also grades into 'A. micrococcus'. It is thus impossible to subdivide A. cobbe for the whole of Malesia. On a local scale it may be possible to distinguish between the more important races, but the distinctions will not hold in studies that encompass a broader geographical range.

Citation

Blanco 1837: Fl. Filip.: 290
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 494
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Roxb. 1832: Fl. Ind., ed.Carey: 265
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 599
Hiern 1875 – In: Hook. f., Fl. Br. India 1: 673
Merr. 1912: Fl. Manila: 304
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Radlk 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 560
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Fern.-Vill. 1880: Nov. App.: 51
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 556
Radlk. 1934 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1489
Koord. & Valeton 1903 – In: Bijdr. Booms. Java: 146
Roxb. 1832: Fl. Ind., ed.Carey: 269
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 602
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 587
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 582
Roxb. 1832: Fl. Ind., ed.Carey: 267
Radlk. 1934 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1490
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 600
Roxb. 1814: Hort. Beng.: 88
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 599
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 583
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 496
cf. Merr. 1908 – In: Philipp. J. Sc, Bot.: 79
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 557
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 584
Roxb. 1832: Fl. Ind., ed. Carey: 268
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 552
Radlk. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 494
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 494
Craib 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. Enum.: 322
Miq. 1861: Sumatra: 199,511
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 604
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 582
Merr. 1935: Comm. Lour.: 246
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 565
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 497
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 496
Wight 1845: I.c.: t. 964/2
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 586
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 585
Ridley 1922 – In: Fl. Malay Penins.: 489
Miq. 1859 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 576
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 581
Fern.-Vill. 1880: Nov. App.: 51
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 495
Blanco 1845: Fl. Filip., ed. 2: 203
Blume 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 578
Raeuschel 1940: Wayside Trees: 584: f. 211, 213
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 553
Vidal 1885: Phan. Cuming.: 104
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 581
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 583
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 557
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 568
Lecomte 1912 – In: Fl. Indo-Chine: 1013
Corner 1939 – In: Gard. Bull. Str. Setti.: 38
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 558
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 603
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 498
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 555
Gagnep. 1950: Fl. Indo-Chine: 929
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 566
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 603
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 604
Burm. f. 1768: Fl. Ind.: 75
Backer & Bakh. f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java: 133
Rid-ley 1922 – In: Fl. Malay Penins.: 489
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 594
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 586
Radlk. 1909 – In: Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Kõnigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München: 231
Ridley 1922 – In: Fl. Malay Penins.: 489
Ridley 1900 – In: J. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc.: 66
Radlk. 1934 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1489
Benth. 1843 – In: Hook. Lond. J. Bot.: 213
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 593
Ridley 1922 – In: Fl. Malay Penins.: 490
Kuntze 1891 – In: Rev. Gen. Pl.: 141
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 572
Hiern 1875 – In: Hook. f., Fl. Br. India 1: 673
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 577
Radlk. 1932 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 553