Fimbristylis dichotoma

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Fimbristylis dichotoma

Description

Annual, or perennial with very short rhizome. Leaves basal, from much shorter than to about as long as the stems, weak or rigid, flat, abruptly acuminate, glabrous or more or less pubes- cent, scabrid on the margins in the upper part, green or glaucous, 1½-5 mm wide; Inflorescence simple to decompound, loose or dense, with few to numerous spikelets, up to 20 cm long. Stamens 1-3;

Distribution

All warmer parts of the whole world present, Asia-Tropical, S. and E. Asia present
All warmer parts of the whole world, one of the most widely distributed species; very common in S. and E. Asia and throughout Malesia.

Uses

The leaves furnish a rather large quantity of forage with sufficient food-value. In the Philippines the stems are used for matting, but they are inferior to those of F. globulosa.

Notes

An exceedingly polymorphous species, burdened with hundreds of synonyms. Now the stems are filiform, then again rather robust; stems, leaf-blades, sheaths, and rays of the inflorescence are normally glabrous, but frequently long-hairy; the inflorescence may be widely branched with some hundred spikelets, or reduced to a few spikelets or a single one; size of the glumes, number of stamens, shape of the fruit, etc. are variable. An attempt to disentangle this polymorphism was given by .
F. ramosii KÜK., based on a very young collection (RAMOS BS 7816 from Manila), is merely a hairy form of F. dichotoma. There is no close affinity to F. ferruginea, with which KÜKENTHAL compares it.
RIDLEY’S ‘F. longispica STEUD.’ is a remarkable, coarse plant from the sandy sea-shore. Similar plants occur in Cochinchina (e.g. CLEMENS 3046 from the sandy sea-shore near Tourane). The stems are stout, up to 80 cm by 2 mm, the rigid leaves 3-4 mm wide, the involucral bracts short, the relatively few (c. 20) spikelets 4-5 mm wide, the glumes up to 4½ mm long, the style 3-4 mm, the anthers 1- 1¾ mm, with the connective distinctly produced and often somewhat bristly at the top. It is quite distinct from E. Asian F. longispica STEUD., but may represent a well-distinct race of F. dichotoma.
An eastern race of F. dichotoma is F. depauperata R.BR., subsp. dichotoma, see there.

Citation

HASSK. 1848: Pl. Jav. Rar. p 64
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 324
SCHEFF. 1874 – In: Nat. tijd. N. I. p 56
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 323
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 325
S. T. BLAKE 1954 – In: J. Arn. Arb. p 213
F.-VILL. 1882: NOV. App. p 308
Clarke 1909: Ill. Cyp. t. 42 f. 1-2
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 324
VAHL 1922 – In: Exk. Fl. Java. f. 253
Merr. 1918: Sp. Blanc. p 83
Ridl. 1907 – In: Mat. Fl. Mal. Pen. (Monoc.). p 93
Merr. 1949 – In: Bekn. Fl. Java, (em. ed.). fam. 246, p. 21
FISCHER 1935: Kew Bull. p 150
cf. MERR. 1928 – In: Philip. J. Sc. p 5
Koord. 1911 – In: Exk. Fl. Java. p 199
Clarke 1893 – In: Fl. Br. Ind. p 636
CAMUS 1912 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 103
STEUD. 1855 – In: Syn. p 116
KÜK. 1924 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 47
BACK. 1928: Onkr. Suiker: 160. t. 166
VAHL 1907 – In: Philip. J. Sc. Bot. 93
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat. p 323
KOYAMA 1957 – In: Contr. Inst. Bot. Un. Montreal. p 39
Ridl. 1925 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 155
VAHL 1961 – In: J. Fac. Sc. Un. Tokyo. p 111
Clarke 1925 – In: Fl. Mal. Pen. p 156
Ridl. 1907 – In: Mat. Fl. Mal. Pen. (Monoc.). p 91
KERN 1968 – In: Back. & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 3. p 466
Benth. 1878 – In: Fl. Austr. p 311
F-VILL. 1882: Nov. App. p 308
CAMUS 1912 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C. p 105
KÜK. 1924 – In: Bot. Jahrb. p 47
BROWN 1920 – In: Min. Prod. Philip. For. p 348