Dysoxylum excelsum

Description

Tree to 36 m; bole to 80 cm diam., buttressed to 3 m, buttresses reaching 2.5 m out, concave. Bark smooth to slightly flaking, lenticellate; inner bark reddish brown with resinous smell; sapwood fawnish white; heartwood brownish-red. Leaves 25–90 cm, 2–4(–5)-jugate, ± paripinnate with terminal scar; petiole 5–10 cm, ± puberulent, ± flattened adaxially, weakly swollen at base. Petals 4 (5), 6–15 by 3–4 mm, narrowly oblong, valvate, minutely sericeous without, creamy or pinkish white. Staminal tube glabrous or weakly puberulent within or without, white, margin truncate to weakly 8- (or 10-)crenate; anthers 8 (10), c. 1 mm long, included, glabrous. Ovary densely sericeous, 3- or 4-locular, each locule with 1 or 2 ovules; style glabrous in distal half, otherwise sericeous; stylehead discoid to subcapitate. Capsule up to 5(–7.5) cm diam., 4 cm long, flattened globose to pyriform, 3- or 4-lobed, glabrous to scurfy, chestnut brown when ripe. Seeds 1–4, c. 2.5 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, subreniform, pendent on funicles at fruit dehiscence, testa bright red; hilum white.

Distribution

Andamans: present Nepal and NE India: present S China and Indochina: present Sinharaja Forest: present throughout Malesia to Solomon Islands: present
Sri Lanka (Sinharaja Forest), Nepal and NE India, Andamans, S China and Indochina, throughout Malesia to Solomon Islands, with a very closely allied species (Dysoxylum klanderi F. Muell.) in Queensland, but so far unrecorded from the Bismarck Archipelago.

Uses

Timber of little esteem but used for general construction work.

Citation

Koord. - in Exk. Fl. Java. 1912: 441
Wu - in Fl. Yunnan. 1977: f. 1–3
Backer & Bakh. f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 124
Mabb. - in Tree Fl. Malaya. 1989: 244
Prain - in Beng. Pl. 1903: 220
Koord. - in Atlas. 1913: t. 177.
Merr. - in Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl. 1923: 364.
C.DC. - in DC., Monogr. Phan. 1. 1878: incl. var. integrum C.DC. & var. motleyanum C.DC.
Miq. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: excl. syn. Jack.
Merr. - in Contr. Arnold Arbor. 1934: 81
Backer, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 207
Koord. - in Atlas. 1913: t. 171
Miq. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1868: incl. var. hasseltii Miq.
Theob. - in Mason, Burma, ed. 4, 2. 1883: 582
Koord. - in Exk. Fl. Java. 1912: 442
Kanj. et al. - in Fl. Assam. 1936: 231.
C.DC. - in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1894: incl. var. macranthum C.DC.
Volkens, Laubfall. 1912: 29
Guzman et al. - in Guide Philipp. Fl. Fauna. 1986: t. 256. (Syn. nov.).
C.DC. - in DC., Monogr. Phan. 1. 1878: 485
Merr. - in J. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 1921: incl. var. motleyanum C.DC.
Backer, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 207
Merr. - in Philipp. J. Sc. 1906: 72
Merr. - in Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl. 1923: 362
Ridley - in Fl. Malay Penins. 1922: incl. var. microbotrys (King) Ridley.
C.DC. - in DC., Monogr. Phan. 1. 1878: 752
Pellegr. - in Fl. Indo-Chine. 1911: t. 81, f. 6–11
Hand.-Mazz. - in Symb. Sin. 1933: 632
Zou - in Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1989: 157.
Lecomte, Bois Indoch. 1927: 134
Debnath & Sreek. - in J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 1992: 219
Burkill, Dict. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1935: 886
G. Don - in Gen. Syst. 1831: 683
Robins. - in Philipp. J. Sc, Bot. 1911: 207
Griff. - in Notul. 1854: t. 585A, f. 1.
Wall., Cat.: n. 4885.
Craib - in Fl. Siam. Enum. 1926: 252
Hô - in I11. Fl. Vietnam. 1992: 490
Koord. - in Fl. Tjibodas. 1923: 129
Ridley - in Fl. Malay Penins. 1922: 394.
How & Chen - in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1955: 12
Brandis, Indian trees. 1906: 138
Koord. & Valeton - in Bijdr. Booms. Java. 1896: incl. var. genuinum Koord. & Valeton

Synonymy

Dysoxylum excelsum Blume, Bijdr.: 176. 1825
  • Trichilia excelsa Spreng. in Syst. Veg. 4, 2: excl. syn. Jack. 1827
  • Hartighsea excelsa (Blume) A. Juss. in Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 19: excl. syn. Jack. 1832
  • Macrocheton excelsum (Blume) M. Roem. in Synops. Monogr. 1: 104. 1846
  • =Guarea gobara Buch.-Ham. in Mem. Wern. Soc. 6: 306. 1832
  • Dysoxylum procerum Hiern in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 547. 1875
  • Alliaria procera (Hiern) Kuntze in Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 109. 1891
  • Epicharis procera (Hiern) Pierre in Fl. For. Coch. 5: sub t. 348, nom. illeg. 1896
  • Dysoxylum gobara (Buch.-Ham.) Merr. in J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 173. 1942
  • ???
  • =Guarea disyphonia Griff. in Notul. 4: 503. 1854
  • =Dysoxylum excelsum var. hasseltii Miq. in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4: 19. 1868
  • Dysoxylum hasseltii (Miq.) Koord. & Valeton in Bijdr. Booms. Java 3: 64. 1896
  • =Dysoxylum macrothyrsum auct. non Miq.: Miq. in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4: quoad spec, nee nom. (illeg.) non syn. 1868
  • =Dysoxylum procerum var. motleyanum C.DC. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 1: 485. 1878
  • Dysoxylum motleyanum (C.DC.) Ridley, Bull. Misc. Info. Kew: 364. 1930
  • =Dysoxylum arnoldianum K. Schum. in K. Schum. & Hollr., Fl. Kaiser Wilh. Land: 61. 1889
  • =Dysoxylum microbotrys King in J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, ii: 48. 1895
  • =Dysoxylum turbinatum King in J. As. Soc. Beng. 64, ii: 43. 1895
  • =Dysoxylum macgregorii C.DC. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 3: 164. 1903
  • =Dysoxylum altissimum Merr. in Philipp. Govt Lab. Bur. Bull. 17: 25. 1904
  • =?dysoxylum pallidum Merr. in Philipp. J. Sc., Bot. 9: 366. 1914
  • =Dysoxylum havilandii Ridley, Bull. Misc. Info. Kew: 365. 1930
  • =Dysoxylum huberti Harms in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 15: 476. 1941
  • =Dysoxylum peerisiae Kosterm. in Acta Bot. Neerl. 31: 322. 1982
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