Hybanthus enneaspermus

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Hybanthus enneaspermus

Description

Herb 15-60 cm tall, more or less profusely branched, often woody at the base; Leaves spirally arranged, herbaceous, in one plant varying somewhat in size; Stipules triangular to subulate, 1-2 mm long, thin in texture and light in colour, sometimes fimbriate towards the base, the tip sometimes glandular. Flowers solitary; Sepals subequal, triangular, membranous, 2-4 by ¾-1 mm, glabrous or ciliate. Petals: posterior pair 2½-3½ by ¾-1 mm, middle pair 2¾-4 by 1-1½ mm, falcate; odd one c. 5½-19 mm long, the lip 4-10 mm wide, the base 1-2 mm saccate. Stamens c. 2-3 mm long, the filaments and the dorsal appendage each c. 0.3 times that long, the anther c. 0.4 times; Fruit subglobose, 4-5 mm ø, valves boat-shaped, eventually compressed, light green, each with 2-3 seeds which are ellipsoid c. 2 by 1 mm, straw-coloured, lengthwise ribbed, at the base obliquely truncate, with distinct raphe, the top with a shallow crater.

Distribution

Africa present, Asia-Temperate: Hainan (Hainan present), Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; India present; Maluku (Maluku present); New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present), Ceylon present, Cotabato present, E. Java present, Golo I present, Ilocos Norte present, Kai Is present, Kudat present, Lesser Sunda Is present, Luzon present, Madagascar present, Madura I present, Mindanao present, NW. Sabah present, Peninsular Thailand absent, SE. China present, SW. Papua present, Sumbarwaru and Baluran in the very northeast present, Ternate present, Thursday I. in Torres Straits present, a few localities in the Indochinese Peninsula present, tropical Australia present
Widely in Africa and Madagascar, scattered in India and Ceylon, in SE. China and Hainan, a few localities in the Indochinese Peninsula, but not in Peninsular Thailand. In Malesia: E. Java (Sumbarwaru and Baluran in the very northeast), also Madura I.; Lesser Sunda Is.; Borneo (Kudat in NW. Sabah); the Philippines (Ilocos Norte in Luzon, Cotabato in Mindanao, Golo I.; Moluccas(Ternate, Kai Is.); New Guinea (SW. Papua) and Thursday I. in Torres Straits; tropical Australia. .

Notes

After study of the type and other materials at the British Museum and Kew, I am inclined to agree with Mr J. R. TENNANT'S conception of the species. With his excellent paper on African, Indian, and Chinese Hybanthus handy, only the names recorded for Malesia need to be evaluated here and the number of references can be restricted to a minimum.
As Mr TENNANT found out, DALZELL & GIBSON, l.c., were probably the first to make a choice between the two Linnean epithets enneasperma and suffruticosa, as early as 1861.
It seems that Ionidium frutescens Bl. was based on Polygala frutescens , or on Ionidium frutescens ; (which in turn may have been based on BURMAN'S species), from Ceylon and India, but BLUME refers to none of them.

Citation

TENNANT - in Kew Bull. 1963: 431
BACK., Schoolfl. 1911: 66
DALZ. & GIBS. - in Bombay Fl. 1861: 12
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 106
BACK. & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1963: 194
MIQ. - in Ann. 1869: 217
ROBSON - in Fl. Zambes. 1960: t. 40
GING. - in DC., Prod. 1. 1824: 308
BACK., Onkr. Suiker. 1930: pi. 429
OUDEM. - in Miq., Ann. 3. 1867: 72