Leea indica

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Leea indica

Description

Shrub, treelet or small tree, 2-10(-16) m, multior single stemmed, frequently stilt-rooted; Leaves (1-)2- or 3-pinnate, leaflets 7-∞. Inflorescences (5-)10-25 (-40) cm long, usually broad and lax, rarely condensed, glabrous to pubescent, rarely soft or bristly hairy or papillose; Flowers 5-merous, greenish-white. Ovary (4-) 6 (-8)-celled, style 1-2½ mm. Fruit 5-10(-15) mm ø, purple-black;

Distribution

Ceylon, India (from Madras and Bombay northwards to Punjab, Sikkim, Assam), Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, N. & S. Vietnam, China (Yunnan, Kwangsi, Hainan), Andaman and Nicobar Is.; in Malesia: Malaya, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea (incl. Bismarck Archipelago); N. Australia, Solomon Is., Santa Cruz Is., New Hebrides (Espiritu Santo), Fiji (Vanau, Levu, Ovalau, Viti Levu, Kandavu, Moala), ?Tonga Is..

Notes

Many attempts have been made to segregate this common wide-spread species into smaller taxonomic units, particularly by MIQUEL who studied plants from the area where the greatest morphological diversity occurs. The majority of these segregates have been established on leaflet characters. One entity, somewhat distinctive in flower by the deep sinuses of the staminodial tube, occurs from Burma to Malaya together with the normal form of L. indica, overlapping in vegetative and other characters. It was considered to be specifically distinct by GRIFFITH, who described it as L. gigantea. The situation closely parallels that found in the Madagascan material of L. guineensis where the same deep sinuses occur. In L. guineensis this character occurs allopatrically in an insularly isolated population whilst in ‘L. gigante’ the character occurs sympatrieally within the range of L. indica.
The remainder of the material shows rather interesting trends, particularly in leaf vestiture and dimensions. Within the area from India across to China and southward to Java the leaflets tend to be more or less glabrous and apparently have a trend to increase in size, culminating in large leaflet forms in Java. In the herbarium leaflets of all size classes may be found on plants from Java whilst, as far as can be ascertained, large leaflet forms do not occur in India. This trend is particularly apparent in the dimensions of the terminal leaflets. Eastwards across the Lesser Sunda Islands leaf pubescence tends to increase, culminating in very pubescent forms in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. The Solomon Islands have been very intensively collected and are relatively over-represented in the collections compared to other areas, but here all but two collections are more or less glabrous. Further eastwards to Fiji both pubescent and glabrous forms occur, but there is a decrease in the leaf size so that the glabrous form cannot be separated from the material from India or Ceylon.
The two specimens from the Solomon Is., BSIP 5371 (Rob Roy I.) and NGF 16378 (Bougainville), are unusual in having very large leaflets (c. 25 by 12 cm) which are hairy on the nerves, whilst the remainder of the Solomon Islands material is glabrous. Furthermore the stem, rachises, stipules and inflorescences are covered with bristle-like hairs, a feature somewhat paralleling the condition found in ‘L. cumingii’ of the L. guineensis complex. However, although certain general trends in leaf dimension and vestiture can be recognized, random exceptions occur in all areas and no absolute trends can be delimited. So within New Guinea occasional glabrous leaved species occur which cannot be separated from material from normal populations in Malaya. The problem is to obtain uniform comparable samples from the wide-spread populations of a species common in populated areas and frequently subjected to cutting and coppicing.

Citation

BONSTEDT, Parey’s Blumengart. 1931: 895
CAV. - in Dissert. 1789: t. 218
MIQ. - in Fl. Ind. Bat. 1859: 611
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 387
LAUT. - in Nova Guinea. 1910: 302
RIDL. - in Fl. Mal. Pen. 1922: 485
BRANDIS, Ind. Trees. 1906: 179
PRAIN, Beng. Pl.: 239
LAUT. - in Nova Guinea. 1924: 138
WHITE - in J. Arn. Arb. 1929: 237
HASSK., Pl. Jav. Rar. 1848: 453
WARB. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1891: 369
HASSK., Cat. Hort. Bog. 1844: 168
MIQ. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1863: 96
G. DON - in Gen. Hist. 1831: 712
COWAN & COWAN, Trees N. Beng. 1929: 40
GRIFF. - in Fl. Burma. 1877: 280
DRURY - in Handb.Ind.Fl. 1864: 181
WILLD. - in Fl. Burma. 1877: 279
PARHAM, Pl. Fiji Isl. 1964: 154
ROXB. - in Fl. Ind., ed. 1. 1824: 470
ROXB. - in Syst. Veg. 1827: Cur. post. 70
ROXB. - in Fl. Ind., ed. 2. 1832: 658
ROXB. - in Fl. Ind., ed. 2. 1832: 657
RIDL. - in Fl. Mal. Pen. 1922: 484
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 384
MOON, Cat. Pl. Ceyl. 1824: 18
SCHEFF. - in Ann. Jard. Bot. Btzg. 1876: 15
THW., En. Pl. Zeyl. 1859: 64
BRANDIS, Ind. Trees. 1906: 179
RIDL. - in Fl. Mal. Pen. 1922: 486
CLARKE - in J. Bot. 1881: 139
G. DON - in Gen. Hist. 1831: 712
LAUT. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1925: 534
LAUT. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1925: 530
BRANDIS, For. Fl. 1874: 102
KING - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1896: 414
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 317
GAMBLE & FISCH. - in Fl. Pres. Madras. 1918: 240
ex MASTERS - in Gard. Chron. 1898: f. 92
LAUT. - in Nova Guinea. 1912: 831
SEEM., Fl. Vit. 1865: 44
BANERJEE - in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 1965: 33
A. GRAY, Bot. Wilkes U.S. Expl. Exp. 1854: 274
MERR. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1908: Bot. 80
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 384
HEMSL., Kew Bull. 1895: 134
KURZ - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1873: 65
VOIGT, Hort. Sub. Calc. 1845: 30
K. SCH. & LAUT., Fl. Schutzgeb. 1900: 430
LAWS. - in Fl. Br. Ind. 1875: 666
BURGER, Seedl. Trop. Tr. Shr. SE. Asia. 1972: f. 155
F.-VILL., Nov. App. 1880: 50
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 853
DALZ. & GIBS., Bomb. Fl. 1861: 41
RIDSDALE - in Blumea. 1974: f. 4/6-8, 5/1-7, 8/5
GRIFF. - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1875: 178
BACKER, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 256
RIDL. - in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1916: 32
RECHINGER - in Denkschr. Kais. Ak. Wiss. Wien. 1914: 574
WILLD., Sum. 1861: 202
VAL. - in Bull. Dép. Agr. Ind. Néerl. 1907: 31
BAILEY - in Queensl. Fl. 1899: 284
SCHMIDT - in Bot. Tidsskr. 1915: 330
MERR., En. Born. 1921: 368
KANJILAL & DAS - in Fl. Assam. 1936: 307
SPRENG. - in Syst. Veg. 1827: Cur. post. 70
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 384
K. SCH. & LAUT., Fl. Schutzgeb. 1900: 430
CLARKE - in J. Bot. 1881: 140
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 385, 388
BACKER, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 256
DUTHIE - in Upper Gangetic Pl. 1903: 176
K. SCH. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1888: 208
K. & V. - in Bijdr. 1903: 8
F.v.M. - in Descr. Not. 1876: 37
HARA, Fl. E. Himal. 1966: 200
WILLD. - in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1863: 99
BENTH. - in Fl. Austr. 1863: 451
K. SCH. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1888: 208
CRAIB - in Aberd. Univ. Stud. 1912: 43
F.v.M. - in Descr. Not. 1876: 36
K. SCHINZ - in Bot. Jahrb. 1888: 208
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 14
WILLD., Phan. Cuming. 1885: 104
HAINES, For. Fl. Chota Nagpur. 1910: 280
CORNER - in Ways. Trees. 1940: Atlas pl. 1
KANJILAL & DAS - in Fl. Assam. 1936: 306
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 853
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 384, 385
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
WILLD. - in J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. 1912: 51
CHITTENDEN - in Diet. Gard. 1951: 1143
BACKER & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 94
HAINES - in Bot. Bihar & Orissa. 1925: 208
VIDAL, Sinopsis. 1883: t. 33, f. 1
GRAHAM, Cat. Pl. Bomb. Vic. 1839: 33
BACKER & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 94
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
W. & A., Prod. 1834: 132
COWAN & COWAN, Trees N. Beng. 1929: 40
LAUT. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1925: 534
MERR., En. Born. 1921: 369
SPRENG. - in Syst. Veg. 1824: 670
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 318
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 318
KURZ - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1875: 179
HASSK., Cat. Hort. Bog. 1844: 168
TALBOT - in For. Fl. Bomb. Pres. 1909: 327
BACKER, Schoolfl. Java. 1911: 255
WILLD., Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. 1886: 94
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 384, 385, 387, 388
ROXB., Hort. Beng. 1814: 18
HOME, Year in Fiji. 1881: 264
TRIM. - in Fl. Ceyl. 1893: 297
TALBOT, Trees Shrubs Bomb. Pres., ed. 2: 154
KING - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1896: 412
MIQ., Sum.: 202
CLARKE, Fl. E. Himal., 2nd Rep. 1971: 79
ENGL. - in Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. 1898: 130
WILLIAMS - in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1905: 217
DC. - in Prod. 1824: 635
MERR. & PERRY - in J. Arn. Arb. 1941: 380
RIDL. - in Fl. Mal. Pen. 1922: f. 48
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 848
ROEM. & SCHULTES - in Syst. Veg. 1819: 705
K. SCHINZ - in Notizbl. Berl.-Dahl. 1895: 53
SANTAPAU - in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 1953: 56
HUNDLEY & U CHIT KO Ko, List Tr. Shr. Herbs & Climb. Burma. 1961: 55
MERR. - in Philip. J. Sc. 1906: Suppl. 89
WILLD. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1925: 531
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 386, 387
WILLD. - in Ic. Pl. As. 1854: t. 644
GIBBS - in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1914: 65
KURZ - in J. As. Soc. Beng. 1876: 124
BRANDIS, Ind. Trees. 1906: 179
SCHEFF. - in Ann. Jard. Bot. Btzg. 1876: 15
GRIFF. - in Not. Pl. As. 1854: 698
ROXB. - in Fl. Ind., ed. 1. 1824: 471
COOKE - in Fl. Bomb. 1902: 260
WARB. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1891: 369
KURZ, Rep. Veg. And. Isl. 1870: 34
SUESSENG. - in E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953: 388
RIDL. - in J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc. 1911: 87
SPRENG. - in Syst. Veg. 1824: 670
WHITE - in Proc. R. Soc. Queensl. 1923: 43
GAGNEP. - in Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1912: 941
GAGNEP., Fl. Gén. I.-C. 1950: 852
WINKLER - in Bot. Jahrb. 1909: 537
WARB. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1891: 368
K. & V. - in Bijdr. 1903: 12
CRAIB - in Fl. Siam. En. 1926: 317
LAUT. - in Bot. Jahrb. 1924: 534
CORNER & WATANABE, Ill Guide Trop. Pl. 1969: 454
GRIFF. - in Ic. Pl. As. 1854: f. 2
BACKER & BAKH.f. - in Fl. Java. 1965: 94
VOIGT, Hort. Sub. Calc. 1845: 30
MERR. - in En. Philip. 1923: 11