Parartocarpus venenosus

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Parartocarpus venenosus


Tree up to 35 m tall, sometimes with low buttresses. Leaves spirally arranged; stipules 0.2-0.4 cm long, whitish puberulous, caducous. flowers numerous; processes apiculate to conical, umbonate, 0.5-3 mm high, connate in groups of 2-4 or free, glabrous or minutely puberulous to muriculate; stamens (1 or) 2 (or 3), 6-8 mm long, filaments partly connate or free, anthers 1.5-2.5 mm long, apiculate or not.


Aru Islands present, Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; Jawa (Jawa present); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Maluku (Maluku present); New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present); Sulawesi (Sulawesi present); Sumatera (Sumatera present), Enggano present, Leyte present, Luzon present, Manus Island present, Mindanao present, Mindoro present, New Britain present, Peninsular Thailand present, Riouw-Lingga Islands present, Salawati present, Samar present, Schouten Island present, Solomon Islands present, Yapen present
Peninsular Thailand, Solomon Islands; in Malesia: Sumatra (also Enggano, Riouw-Lingga Islands), Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao), Celebes, the Moluccas (Aru Islands) New Guinea (incl. New Britain, Manus Island, Schouten Island, Yapen, Salawati).


1Parartocarpus microcarpus Corner (1976) is included as the morphological differences between the material referred to this taxon and material referred to P. venenosus are too small to justify recognition as distinct taxa. In the material referred to P. microcarpus the processes of the inflorescences are cushion shaped and mostly depressed in the centre, a feature which is also found in several collections from the Philippines and Celebes and from lowland localities. The collections referred to P. microcarpus are from altitudes between 1000 and 1800 m and may represent a small-leaved montane form of the species. 2The species is variable, in particular in the shape of the processes of the inflorescences, and, most pronouncedly so, of the infructescences in which they vary from discoid to cushion shaped (either with an apiculate or depressed centre) to conical to aculeate (and then up to 10 mm long). Those with conical or aculeate processes are similar to those of P. bracteatus. 3Collections and (the type collection of P. spinulosus), both from Sabah, Sandakan district, are aberrant by the scabrous lamina with a distinctly revolute margin. The processes of the fruiting pistillate inflorescence are cushion shaped and radially ribbed. Collection from Celebes has similar processes and the margin of the lamina is also distinctly revolute, but the surfaces are smooth. Examination of more fertile material is needed before deciding on the identity and status of these forms.


The latex is used as arrow poison. The ripe infructescence is (said to be) edible; unripe seeds are poisonous.


F.G. Browne 1955: For. Trees Sar. & Brunei. p 357
K. Schum. 1895 – In: Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin. p 48
Miq. 1854 – In: Zoll., Syst. Verz. 2. 89, 95
Zoll. & Moritzi 1847 – In: Flora. p 471
Koord. & Valeton 1906 – In: Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java. p 28
Go 2000: p. 321. – In: Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. t. 13
F.M. Jarrett 1960: pp. 9-12. – In: J. Arnold Arbor. 41. 137, 333
Go 2000 – In: Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. p 323
Corner 1976: p. 187. – In: Gard. Bull. Singapore 28. t. 2d, 4a.
W.H. Br. 1921: p. 270. – In: Bull. Bur. Forest. Philipp. Islands. f. 19
Go 2000: p. 323. – In: Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. t. 14
Kochummen 1978: p. 165. – In: Tree Fl. Malaya. t. 9
Backer & Bakh.f. 1965 – In: Fl. Java. p 18
C.T. White 1950 – In: J. Arnold Arbor. 31. p 82
Elmer 1909 – In: Leafl. Philipp. Bot. p 623
Corner 1976: p. 187. – In: Gard. Bull. Singapore 28. t. 2c, 3, 4c
Boerl. 1900 – In: Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. p 371
Corner 1976: p. 186. – In: Gard. Bull. Singapore 28. t. 2c
Lauterb. 1928 – In: Bot. Jahrb. Syst. p 303
Becc. 1902: For. Borneo. p 632
Go 2000 – In: Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. p 320
Becc. 1902: For. Borneo. p 632
S. Moore 1925 – In: J. Bot. p 112
Ridl. 1924 – In: Fl. Malay Penins. p 352
King 1889: p. 7. – In: Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta). t. 1A
Go 2000 – In: Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak. p 323
F.M. Jarrett 1960: p. 326. – In: J. Arnold Arbor. 41. t. 21b, c, e-h
Diels 1935 – In: Bot. Jahrb. Syst. p 174