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Glabrous rhizomatous herbs. Leaves cauline; Ovary superior, sessile, ovoid to obovoid, 3-celled; Fruit a 1-3-seeded berry.


Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical: Jawa (Jawa present); Lesser Sunda Is. (Bali present); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Sumatera (Sumatera present); Thailand (Thailand present), Canada present, Japan present, West Malesia present, northern Deccan Peninsula present, western U.S.A present
Approximately 30 spp. currently recognized in the western U.S.A. and Canada, Japan, China, northern Deccan Peninsula, through Thailand to West Malesia: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Bali.
In my opinion it is highly unlikely that more than half of these will be recognized after critical revision.


Backer l.c. pointed to the peculiar sympodial structure of the stem.


Baker 1875 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Bot.: 588
Hook.f. 1894 – In: Fl. Br. Ind.: 359
D. Don 1841 – In: Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond.: 513
Back. 1924 – In: Handb. Fl. Java: 73
Krause 1930 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam., ed. 2, 15a: 368