1Foliage in the form of cladodes; several ovules erect within a leathery or fleshy cone.
1'Foliage of individual leaves; one to rarely several subterminal inverted seeds (ovules) projecting almost wholly beyond remainder of fertile structure.
2Inverted naked seed turning gradually as it matures to a nearly erect posture, cupped at the base by a thin epimatium, cone reduced to modified leaves which become fleshy when mature.
2'Inverted seed enclosed by a leathery modified fertile scale, not turning, cone in most cases reduced to several scales, becoming fleshy or not.
3Foliage as scales, needles, or small linear bifacially flattened leaves; fertile structure terminal on ordinary but sometimes short lateral foliage shoots
3'Foliage as bilaterally flattened linear to oval-shaped leaves; fertile structure on a distinct scaly lateral shoot
4Leaves needles, scales, or small bilaterally flattened linear forms; fertile bract fused along one side of fruit, subtended by a small warty receptacle that becomes fleshy when mature
4'Leaves bifacially flattened; fertile bract separate from fruit, becoming fleshy or not.
5Fertile structure produced on a scaly (rarely leafy) shoot; covering of seed more or less fleshy.
5'Fertile structure produced on a naked peduncle subtending a fleshy (or leathery) receptacle, covering of seed leathery (rarely somewhat fleshy)
6Leaves spirally placed, single veined, linear; seed nearly oval with slightly asymmetrical micropylar end, fertile axis never fleshy
6'Leaves opposite, often multiveined, oval; seed (usually) with a pronounced curving beak at the micropylar end, fertile axis in some cases a fleshy receptacle