Tinomiscium petiolare

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Tinomiscium petiolare


Large woody climber to 30 m, exuding white latex when cut. Leaves: Inflorescences arising several together from protuberances on old stems, racemose, (5—)8—28(—35) cm, ferrugineous-tomentose, rarely glabrous.


Asia-Temperate: China South-Central (Yunnan present), Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; India present; Malaya present; New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present); Sumatera (Sumatera present); Thailand (Thailand present); Vietnam (Vietnam present), Burma present, Luzon present, Mindanao present, Natuna Is present, Nicobar Is present, W. Java present
India (incl. Nicobar Is.), Burma, Thailand, Yunnan, Vietnam; in Malesia: Sumatra, Malaya, W. Java, Borneo (incl. Natuna Is.), Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao), New Guinea.


The milky exudate is used against dental caries (Vietnam), to alleviate sprue and fever (VAN STEENIS-KRUSEMAN, l.c.), and diluted it is used as an eyewash (Philippines; see BROWN, l.c., under T. philippinense). The fruits are used as fish-poison (Philippines; BURKILL, l.c., under T. philippinense), yet WHITMOREin his field-notes for FRI 3381 stated that the seeds are edible and sweet. The plant (? fruits) is used as a rat-poison in S. Sumatra (BURKILL, l.c., under T. phytocrenoides), while the roots and stems are used medicinally in Java.


In his monograph DIELS (1910) recognized 7 species although he commented that these were very close and that their number should perhaps be reduced. The characters used by DIELS to distinguish the species were: shape and indumentum of leaves, and sizes of inflorescences, flower-pedicels and sepals. With the abundant material of the genus now available, it is clear that there is much variation in the characters and that they can no longer be used to draw taxonomic distinctions. The stamens and endocarps have also proved to be very variable. The stamens can be conspicuously apiculate or the apiculus can be completely lacking; both conditions can occur in the same flower. The anthers vary from being prominent, i.e. projecting from the connective, with vertical slits to being immersed in the connective with horizontal slits; intermediate examples also occur. The endocarps are very variable in shape and surface ornamentation and also vary in the degree of flattening.


Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip.: 146
Diels 1910: p. 33. – In: Pfl. R.: f. 16A&B, 118
Merr. 1923 – In: En. Philip.: 146
YAMAMOTO 1944 – In: J. Soc. Trop. Agric.: 40
Miq. 1858 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 87
King 1889 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng.: 379
BACK. & BAKH.Ƒ 1963 – In: Fl. Java: 157
QUIS. 1951: Medic. Pl. Philip.: 299
KANEH.& HATUS. 1942 – In: Bot. Mag. Tokyo: 474
HEND. 1928 – In: Gard. Bull. S. S.: 219
Ridl. 1910 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc.: 14
Koord. 1912 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: 233
BACK. 1911: Schoolfl.: 42
BURK. 1935: Dict.: 2136
YAMAMOTO 1944 – In: J. Soc. Trop. Agric.: 41
BOERL. 1899 – In: Cat. Hort. Bog.: 37
MIERS 1871 – In: Contr. Bot.: 45
MIERS 1871: p. 45. – In: Contr. Bot.: t. 94
BURK. 1935: Dict.: 2163
HEYNE 1927: Nutt. Pl.: 618
BURK. 1935: Dict.: 2163
PANCHO 1983: p. 279. – In: Vase. Fl. Mt Makiling: f. 83
BURK. & HEND. 1925 – In: Gard. Bull. S. S.: 344
HEYNE 1927: Nutt. Pl.: 618
Merr. 1921: En. Born.: 248
STEENIS-KRUSEMAN 1953 – In: Bull. Org. Sc. Res. Indon.: 35
Diels 1910: p. 117. – In: Pfl. R.: f. 42
TEIJSM. & BINN. 1873: p. 394. – In: Nat. Tijd. N. I.: t. 3
Diels 1910 – In: Pfl. R.: 116
NORMAN 1924 – In: J. Bot.: 5
W.H. BROWN 1921 – In: Minor Prod. Philip. For.: 186
HOOK.f. & TH. 1872 – In: Fl. Br. India: 97
Ridl. 1922: p. 105. – In: Fl. Mal. Pen.: t. 9
Ridl. 1900 – In: J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc.: 42
GAGNEP 1908: p. 127. – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C.: t. 14/1-10
Diels 1911 – In: Elmer, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 4: 1164
BACK. & BAKH.Ƒ 1963 – In: Fl. Java: 157
THOTHATHRI et al. 1976 – In: Bull. Bot. Surv. India: 15
FORMAN 1985: p. 542. – In: Kew Bull.: f. 1