Cyperus exaltatus

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Cyperus exaltatus


Perennial with very short rhizome. Leaves flat or plicate with the midrib prominent beneath and 2 lateral nerves strongly marked above, coriaceous, scabrous on the margins and scaberulous on the upper surface, bright green above, pale green beneath, 8-15 mm wide; Inflorescence compound or decompound, up to 25 cm long. Stamens 3;


Asia-Tropical: India present; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present, Singapore present), E. China present, Japan present, Lesser Sunda Is present, Merauke present, Penang present, S. Australia present, Timor present, Tropical Africa present, W. Java present, W. New Guinea present, near Djakarta present, tropical S. America present
Scattered in tropical Africa; rather common from India to Indo-China, E. China, and Japan, southward extending to S. Australia; doubtful for tropical S. America; in Malesia very rare: a few times collected in the Malay Peninsula (Singapore, Penang), W. Java (near Djakarta), the Lesser Sunda Is. (Timor), and W. New Guinea (Merauke).


Closely allied to C. imbricatus, from which it is sometimes difficult to be distinguished, as both are very polymorphous. C. exaltatus is often more robust, its spikes are less dense and peduncled, and the glumes more closely imbricate. From C. digitatus, also with patent spikelets, it can be distinguished by the roader spikelets, the broader, mucronate glumes, and the smaller nuts.
KOYAMA opposed the E. Asian-Australian plants to the typical Indian ones as var. iwasakii (MAKINO) [C. venustus R.BR. l.c.; C. iwasakii ]. I am unable to draw a line between the Indian forms and those from Korea, Japan, China. Malesia, and Australia.
The records for the Malay Peninsula are old: Singapore, 1853, ANDERSSON; Penang, 1904-06, BIRCH. The specimen from Sumatra, WAITZ, mentioned by VALCKENIER SURINGAR, 1898, l.c., is much too young for identification.


Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 280
Clarke 1884 – In: J. Linn. Soc. Bot.: 186
VALCK. SUR. 1898: Gesl. Cyp. Mal. Arch: 139: t. 4 f. 40
CAMUS 1912 – In: Fl. Gén. I.-C.: 73
Koord. 1911 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: 191
RETZ. 1893 – In: Fl. Br. Ind.: 617
BOECK. 1870 – In: Linnaea: 319
KERN 1952: p. 99. – In: Reinwardtia: f. 2
RETZ. 1922 – In: Exk. Fl. Java: f. 227
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 276
VAHL 1806 – In: En.: 366
RETZ. 1968 – In: Back. & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 3: 480
Ridl. 1885 – In: Forbes, Wand.: 520
Benth. 1878 – In: Fl. Austr.: 285
Clarke 1907 – In: Philip. J. Sc.: Bot. 86
BACK. 1949 – In: Bekn. Fl. Java, (em. ed.): fam. 246, p. 37
KÜK. 1935: p. 64. – In: Pfl. R.: f. 9 A-F
Miq. 1856 – In: Fl. Ind. Bat.: 276